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Unveiling the β Pictoris system, coupling high contrast imaging, interferometric, and radial velocity data

Lagrange, A. M. and Rubini, P. and Nowak, M. and Lacour, S. and Grandjean, A. and Boccaletti, A. and Langlois, M. and Delorme, P. and Gratton, R. and Wang, J. and Flasseur, O. and Galicher, R. and Kral, Q. and Meunier, N. and Beust, H. and Babusiaux, C. and Le Coroller, H. and Thebault, P. and Kervella, P. and Zurlo, A. and Maire, A.-L. and Wahhaj, Z. and Amorim, A. and Asensio-Torres, R. and Benisty, M. and Berger, J. P. and Bonnefoy, M. and Brandner, W. and Cantalloube, F. and Charnay, B. and Chauvin, G. and Choquet, É. and Clénet, Y. and Christiaens, V. and Coudé du Foresto, V. and de Zeeuw, P. T. and Desidera, S. and Duvert, G. and Eckart, A. and Eisenhauer, F. and Galland, F. and Gao, F. and Garcia, P. and García López, R. and Gendron, E. and Genzel, R. and Gillessen, S. and Girard, J. and Hagelberg, J. and Haubois, X. and Henning, T. and Heissel, G. and Hippler, S. and Horrobin, M. and Janson, M. and Kammerer, J. and Kenworthy, M. and Keppler, M. and Kreidberg, L. and Lapeyrère, V. and Le Bouquin, J.-B. and Léna, P. and Mérand, A. and Messina, S. and Mollière, P. and Monnier, J. D. and Ott, T. and Otten, G. and Paumard, T. and Paladini, C. and Perraut, K. and Perrin, G. and Pueyo, L. and Pfuhl, O. and Rodet, L. and Rodriguez-Coira, G. and Rousset, G. and Samland, M. and Shangguan, J. and Schmidt, T. and Straub, O. and Straubmeier, C. and Stolker, T. and Vigan, A. and Vincent, F. and Widmann, F. and Woillez, J. (2020) Unveiling the β Pictoris system, coupling high contrast imaging, interferometric, and radial velocity data. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 642 . Art. No. A18. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Context. The nearby and young β Pictoris system hosts a well resolved disk, a directly imaged massive giant planet orbiting at ≃9 au, as well as an inner planet orbiting at ≃2.7 au, which was recently detected through radial velocity (RV). As such, it offers several unique opportunities for detailed studies of planetary system formation and early evolution. Aims. We aim to further constrain the orbital and physical properties of β Pictoris b and c using a combination of high contrast imaging, long base-line interferometry, and RV data. We also predict the closest approaches or the transit times of both planets, and we constrain the presence of additional planets in the system. Methods. We obtained six additional epochs of SPHERE data, six additional epochs of GRAVITY data, and five additional epochs of RV data. We combined these various types of data in a single Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis to constrain the orbital parameters and masses of the two planets simultaneously. The analysis takes into account the gravitational influence of both planets on the star and hence their relative astrometry. Secondly, we used the RV and high contrast imaging data to derive the probabilities of presence of additional planets throughout the disk, and we tested the impact of absolute astrometry. Results. The orbital properties of both planets are constrained with a semi-major axis of 9.8 ± 0.4 au and 2.7 ± 0.02 au for b and c, respectively, and eccentricities of 0.09 ± 0.1 and 0.27 ± 0.07, assuming the HIPPARCOS distance. We note that despite these low fitting error bars, the eccentricity of β Pictoris c might still be over-estimated. If no prior is provided on the mass of β Pictoris b, we obtain a very low value that is inconsistent with what is derived from brightness-mass models. When we set an evolutionary model motivated prior to the mass of β Pictoris b, we find a solution in the 10–11 M_(Jup) range. Conversely, β Pictoris c’s mass is well constrained, at 7.8 ± 0.4 M_(Jup), assuming both planets are on coplanar orbits. These values depend on the assumptions on the distance of the β Pictoris system. The absolute astrometry HIPPARCOS-Gaia data are consistent with the solutions presented here at the 2σ level, but these solutions are fully driven by the relative astrometry plus RV data. Finally, we derive unprecedented limits on the presence of additional planets in the disk. We can now exclude the presence of planets that are more massive than about 2.5 M_(Jup) closer than 3 au, and more massive than 3.5 M_(Jup) between 3 and 7.5 au. Beyond 7.5 au, we exclude the presence of planets that are more massive than 1–2 M_(Jup). Conclusions. Combining relative astrometry and RVs allows one to precisely constrain the orbital parameters of both planets and to give lower limits to potential additional planets throughout the disk. The mass of β Pictoris c is also well constrained, while additional RV data with appropriate observing strategies are required to properly constrain the mass of β Pictoris b.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Nowak, M.0000-0001-6923-1315
Lacour, S.0000-0002-6948-0263
Boccaletti, A.0000-0001-9353-2724
Wang, J.0000-0003-0774-6502
Kral, Q.0000-0001-6527-4684
Kervella, P.0000-0003-0626-1749
Zurlo, A.0000-0002-5903-8316
Maire, A.-L.0000-0002-2591-4138
Wahhaj, Z.0000-0001-8269-324X
Benisty, M.0000-0002-7695-7605
Berger, J. P.0000-0001-5025-0428
Bonnefoy, M.0000-0001-5579-5339
Choquet, É.0000-0002-9173-0740
Christiaens, V.0000-0002-0101-8814
de Zeeuw, P. T.0000-0003-4175-3474
Duvert, G.0000-0001-8769-3660
Garcia, P.0000-0002-1678-3535
García López, R.0000-0002-8204-6832
Genzel, R.0000-0002-2767-9653
Hagelberg, J.0000-0002-1096-1433
Janson, M.0000-0001-8345-593X
Kenworthy, M.0000-0002-7064-8270
Mollière, P.0000-0003-4096-7067
Monnier, J. D.0000-0002-3380-3307
Otten, G.0000-0002-6717-1977
Perraut, K.0000-0003-3099-757X
Pueyo, L.0000-0003-3818-408X
Shangguan, J.0000-0002-4569-9009
Stolker, T.0000-0002-5823-3072
Vigan, A.0000-0002-5902-7828
Additional Information:© A. M. Lagrange et al. 2020. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received 2 July 2020 / Accepted 21 August 2020. We acknowledge support from the French CNRS, from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-14-CE33-0018), and the OSUG LABEX. A.V. and G.O. acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 757561). A.A. and P.G. were supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, with grants reference UIDB/00099/2020 and SFRH/BSAB/142940/2018. R.G.L. acknowledges support by Science Foundation Ireland under Gant. No. 18/SIRG/5597. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 0104.C-0418(D), 0104.C-0418(E), 0104.C-0418(F), 1104.C-0651, 098.C-0739(A), 0104.C-0418(A), 0104.C-0418(C).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-14-CE33-0018
Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Grenoble (OSUG)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)757561
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/00099/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)SFRH/BSAB/142940/2018
Science Foundation, Ireland18/SIRG/5597
Subject Keywords:techniques: high angular resolution / techniques: radial velocities / planets and satellites: detection / planets and satellites: fundamental parameters
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201002-155843433
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Unveiling the β Pictoris system, coupling high contrast imaging, interferometric, and radial velocity data A. M. Lagrange, P. Rubini, M. Nowak, S. Lacour, A. Grandjean, A. Boccaletti, M. Langlois, P. Delorme, R. Gratton, J. Wang, O. Flasseur, R. Galicher, Q. Kral, N. Meunier, H. Beust, C. Babusiaux, H. Le Coroller, P. Thebault, P. Kervella, A. Zurlo, A.-L. Maire, Z. Wahhaj, A. Amorim, R. Asensio-Torres, M. Benisty, J. P. Berger, M. Bonnefoy, W. Brandner, F. Cantalloube, B. Charnay, G. Chauvin, E. Choquet, Y. Clénet, V. Christiaens, V. Coudé du Foresto, P. T. de Zeeuw, S. Desidera, G. Duvert, A. Eckart, F. Eisenhauer, F. Galland, F. Gao, P. Garcia, R. Garcia Lopez, E. Gendron, R. Genzel, S. Gillessen, J. Girard, J. Hagelberg, X. Haubois, T. Henning, G. Heissel, S. Hippler, M. Horrobin, M. Janson, J. Kammerer, M. Kenworthy, M. Keppler, L. Kreidberg, V. Lapeyrère, J.-B. Le Bouquin, P. Léna, A. Mérand, S. Messina, P. Mollière, J. D. Monnier, T. Ott, G. Otten, T. Paumard, C. Paladini, K. Perraut, G. Perrin, L. Pueyo, O. Pfuhl, L. Rodet, G. Rodriguez-Coira, G. Rousset, M. Samland, J. Shangguan, T. Schmidt, O. Straub, C. Straubmeier, T. Stolker, A. Vigan, F. Vincent, F. Widmann, J. Woillez and the GRAVITY Collaboration A&A, 642 (2020) A18 DOI:
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ID Code:105777
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Oct 2020 14:05
Last Modified:05 Oct 2020 14:05

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