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Particle creation by black holes

Hawking, S. W. (1975) Particle creation by black holes. Communications in Mathematical Physics, 43 (3). pp. 199-220. ISSN 0010-3616. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201013-104023316

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Abstract

In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature hκ/2πk ≈10⁻⁶(M⊙/M)∘K where κ is the surface gravity of the black hole. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10¹⁵ g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law:S+1/4A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon.


Item Type:Article
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https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02345020DOIArticle
https://rdcu.be/b8q9CPublisherFree ReadCube access
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01608497DOIErratum
https://rdcu.be/b8sJHPublisherFree ReadCube access -- Erratum
Additional Information:© 1975 Springer Verlag. Received April 12, 1975.
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201013-104023316
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201013-104023316
Official Citation:Hawking, S.W. Particle creation by black holes. Commun.Math. Phys. 43, 199–220 (1975). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02345020
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106020
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:13 Oct 2020 20:47
Last Modified:13 Oct 2020 20:48

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