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Near-real-time monitoring of global CO₂ emissions reveals the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic

Liu, Zhu and Ciais, Philippe and Deng, Zhu and Lei, Ruixue and Davis, Steven J. and Feng, Sha and Zheng, Bo and Cui, Duo and Dou, Xinyu and Zhu, Biqing and Guo, Rui and Ke, Piyu and Sun, Taochun and Lu, Chenxi and He, Pan and Wang, Yuan and Yue, Xu and Wang, Yilong and Lei, Yadong and Zhou, Hao and Cai, Zhaonan and Wu, Yuhui and Guo, Runtao and Han, Tingxuan and Xue, Jinjun and Boucher, Olivier and Boucher, Eulalie and Chevallier, Frédéric and Tanaka, Katsumasa and Wei, Yimin and Zhong, Haiwang and Kang, Chongqing and Zhang, Ning and Chen, Bin and Xi, Fengming and Liu, Miaomiao and Bréon, François-Marie and Lu, Yonglong and Zhang, Qiang and Guan, Dabo and Gong, Peng and Kammen, Daniel M. and He, Kebin and Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim (2020) Near-real-time monitoring of global CO₂ emissions reveals the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nature Communications, 11 . Art. No. 5172. ISSN 2041-1723. PMCID PMC7560733. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201019-102845933

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Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting human activities, and in turn energy use and carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Here we present daily estimates of country-level CO2 emissions for different sectors based on near-real-time activity data. The key result is an abrupt 8.8% decrease in global CO₂ emissions (−1551 Mt CO₂) in the first half of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. The magnitude of this decrease is larger than during previous economic downturns or World War II. The timing of emissions decreases corresponds to lockdown measures in each country. By July 1st, the pandemic’s effects on global emissions diminished as lockdown restrictions relaxed and some economic activities restarted, especially in China and several European countries, but substantial differences persist between countries, with continuing emission declines in the U.S. where coronavirus cases are still increasing substantially.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18922-7DOIArticle
https://www.carbonmonitor.org.cnRelated ItemCarbon Monitor
https://ladsweb.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/missions-and-measurements/products/MOD04_L2Related ItemAOD from MODIS
http://www.temis.nl/airpollution/no2col/no2regioomimonth_qa.phpRelated ItemNO2 from OMI
https://data2.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatDataArchiveService/usr/download/DownloadPage/viewRelated ItemXCO2 from GOSAT
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560733/PubMed CentralArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Liu, Zhu0000-0002-8968-7050
Ciais, Philippe0000-0001-8560-4943
Deng, Zhu0000-0002-6409-9578
Lei, Ruixue0000-0001-6226-7075
Davis, Steven J.0000-0002-9338-0844
Feng, Sha0000-0002-2376-0868
Zheng, Bo0000-0001-8344-3445
Dou, Xinyu0000-0001-7783-6971
Zhu, Biqing0000-0001-9360-6797
Guo, Rui0000-0001-5536-0669
Ke, Piyu0000-0003-0353-6313
Sun, Taochun0000-0003-3640-6005
Wang, Yuan0000-0001-6657-8401
Yue, Xu0000-0002-8861-8192
Xue, Jinjun0000-0002-6794-1361
Boucher, Eulalie0000-0002-6070-2544
Chevallier, Frédéric0000-0002-4327-3813
Tanaka, Katsumasa0000-0001-9601-6442
Wei, Yimin0000-0002-8476-7334
Bréon, François-Marie0000-0003-2128-739X
Lu, Yonglong0000-0002-3338-4210
Zhang, Qiang0000-0002-8376-131X
Gong, Peng0000-0003-1513-3765
Kammen, Daniel M.0000-0003-2984-7777
Alternate Title:Near-real-time monitoring of global CO2 emissions reveals the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 09 June 2020; Accepted 17 September 2020; Published 14 October 2020. ZL acknowledges funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 71874097 and 41921005), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (JQ19032), and Qiushi Foundation. CB is supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (71725005), Beijing Outstanding Scientist Program (BJJWZYJH01201910027031). N.Z. is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71822402 and 91746112) and National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC0213600). P.G. is thankful to Cyrus Tang foundation and Delos LLC. Asia for donations to support his research at Tsinghua University. M.M.L. is thankful to The Science Fund for Creative Research Groups “Environmental Risk Management (ERM)” granted by NSFC (71921003). H.Z. and C.K. are thankful to National High-End Think Tank Construction Project of National Governance and Global Governance Institute of Tsinghua University (2020WTF044). X.Y. is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0603802). Y.L. was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 71761147001), This research is partially supported by Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (2020Z99CFG012). Authors acknowledge Paul O. Wennberg for insightful comments that helped improve this paper and Jingjing Chen and Qi Pan for the help of data collection. Data availability: All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this article (data available at https://www.carbonmonitor.org or https://www.carbonmonitor.org.cn). AOD from MODIS: https://ladsweb.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/missions-and-measurements/products/MOD04_L2/ NO2 from OMI: http://www.temis.nl/airpollution/no2col/no2regioomimonth_qa.php XCO2 from GOSAT: https://data2.gosat.nies.go.jp/GosatDataArchiveService/usr/download/DownloadPage/view. Code availability: All code generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. These authors contributed equally: Zhu Liu, Philippe Ciais, Zhu Deng. Author Contributions: Z.L. and P.C. designed the research, Z.D. coordinated the data processing. Z.L., P.C., Z.D., R.L., S.J.D., S.F., B.Z., D.C., X.D., B.Z., R.G., P.K., T.S., C.L., P.H., Y.Wang, X.Y., Y.W., Y.L., H.Z., Z.C., Y.Wu, Runtao G., T.H., J.X., O.B., E.B., F.C., K.T., H.Z., C.K. contributed to data collecting, analysis, Z.L., P.C., Z.D., R.L., S.J.D., S.F., B.Z., D.C., X.D., B.Z., R.G., P.K., T.S., C.L., P.H., Y.Wang, X.Y., Y.W., Y.L., H.Z., Z.C., Y.Wu, Runtao G., T.H., J.X., O.B., E.B., F.C., K.T., Y.W., H.Z., C.K., N.Z., B.C., F.X., M.L., F.M., Y.L., Q.Z., D.G., P.G., D.M., K.H. and H.J.S. contributed to paper writing. Competing interests: Authors declare no competing interests. Peer review information: Nature Communications thanks Daniel Moran, Thomas Wiedmann, and Yoshiki Yamagata for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Natural Science Foundation of China71874097
National Natural Science Foundation of China41921005
Beijing Natural Science FoundationJQ19032
Qiushi FoundationUNSPECIFIED
National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China71725005
Beijing Outstanding Scientist ProgramBJJWZYJH01201910027031
National Natural Science Foundation of China71822402
National Natural Science Foundation of China91746112
National Key Research and Development Program of China2018YFC0213600
Cyrus Tang Foundation UNSPECIFIED
Delos LLCUNSPECIFIED
Science Fund for Creative Research GroupsUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China71921003
Tsinghua University2020WTF044
National Key Research and Development Program2017YFA0603802
National Natural Science Foundation of China71761147001
Tsinghua University2020Z99CFG012
Subject Keywords:Atmospheric science; Climate sciences; Environmental sciences; Environmental social sciences
PubMed Central ID:PMC7560733
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201019-102845933
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201019-102845933
Official Citation:Liu, Z., Ciais, P., Deng, Z. et al. Near-real-time monitoring of global CO2 emissions reveals the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nat Commun 11, 5172 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18922-7
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106144
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Oct 2020 18:20
Last Modified:20 Oct 2020 18:20

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