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Breath-, air- and surface-borne SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals

Zhou, Lian and Yao, Maosheng and Zhang, Xiang and Hu, Bicheng and Li, Xinyue and Chen, Haoxuan and Zhang, Lu and Liu, Yun and Du, Meng and Sun, Bochao and Jiang, Yunyu and Zhou, Kai and Hong, Jie and Yu, Na and Ding, Zhen and Xu, Yan and Hu, Min and Morawska, Lidia and Grinshpun, Sergey A. and Biswas, Pratim and Flagan, Richard C. and Zhu, Baoli and Liu, Wenqing and Zhang, Yuanhang (2021) Breath-, air- and surface-borne SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals. Journal of Aerosol Science, 152 . Art. No. 105693. ISSN 0021-8502. PMCID PMC7557302. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201027-093242333

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Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an unprecedented crisis to the global health sector. When discharging COVID-19 patients in accordance with throat or nasal swab protocols using RT-PCR, the potential risk of reintroducing the infection source to humans and the environment must be resolved. Here, 14 patients including 10 COVID-19 subjects were recruited; exhaled breath condensate (EBC), air samples and surface swabs were collected and analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in four hospitals with applied natural ventilation and disinfection practices in Wuhan. Here we discovered that 22.2% of COVID-19 patients (n = 9), who were ready for hospital discharge based on current guidelines, had SARS-CoV-2 in their exhaled breath (~10⁵ RNA copies/m³). Although fewer surface swabs (3.1%, n = 318) tested positive, medical equipment such as face shield frequently contacted/used by healthcare workers and the work shift floor were contaminated by SARS-CoV-2 (3–8 viruses/cm²). Three of the air samples (n = 44) including those collected using a robot-assisted sampler were detected positive by a digital PCR with a concentration level of 9–219 viruses/m³. RT-PCR diagnosis using throat swab specimens had a failure rate of more than 22% in safely discharging COVID-19 patients who were otherwise still exhaling the SARS-CoV-2 by a rate of estimated ~1400 RNA copies per minute into the air. Direct surface contact might not represent a major transmission route, and lower positive rate of air sample (6.8%) was likely due to natural ventilation (1.6–3.3 m/s) and regular disinfection practices. While there is a critical need for strengthening hospital discharge standards in preventing re-emergence of COVID-19 spread, use of breath sample as a supplement specimen could further guard the hospital discharge to ensure the safety of the public and minimize the pandemic re-emergence risk.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2020.105693DOIArticle
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc7557302/PubMed CentralArticle
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.31.20115196DOIDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Yao, Maosheng0000-0002-1442-8054
Zhang, Xiang0000-0003-4462-3798
Li, Xinyue0000-0002-0822-4960
Chen, Haoxuan0000-0001-8398-9093
Morawska, Lidia0000-0002-0594-9683
Grinshpun, Sergey A.0000-0003-4339-927X
Biswas, Pratim0000-0003-1104-3738
Flagan, Richard C.0000-0001-5690-770X
Alternate Title:Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Exhaled Breath from COVID-19 Patients Ready for Hospital Discharge
Additional Information:© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. Received 4 September 2020, Revised 5 October 2020, Accepted 6 October 2020, Available online 15 October 2020. This research was equally supported by the Chinese Academy of Engineering Grant (2020-ZD-15), and a National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) grant (22040101) (PI: M. Yao) dedicated to the COVID-19 pandemic. This work was also partially supported by the NSFC Distinguished Young Scholars Fund Awarded to M. Yao (21725701), and the Scientific Research Fund of Jiangsu Provincial Health Committee (S2017002). CRediT authorship contribution statement: Lian Zhou: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Maosheng Yao: Supervision, Conceptualization, Methodology, Data interpretation, Formal analysis, Resources, Investigation, Funding acquisition. Xiang Zhang: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Bicheng Hu: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Xinyue Li: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Haoxuan Chen: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Lu Zhang: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Yun Liu: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Meng Du: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Bochao Sun: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Yunyu Jiang: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Kai Zhou: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Jie Hong: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Na Yu: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Zhen Ding: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Yan Xu: Data curation, Resources, Validation, Investigation. Min Hu: Data interpretation, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing, Formal analysis, Validation. Lidia Morawska: Data interpretation, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing, Formal analysis, Validation. Sergey A. Grinshpun: Data interpretation, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing, Formal analysis, Validation. Pratim Biswas: Data interpretation, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing, Formal analysis, Validation. Richard C. Flagan: Data interpretation, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing, Formal analysis, Validation. Baoli Zhu: Supervision, Conceptualization, Methodology, Data interpretation, Formal analysis, Resources, Investigation, Funding acquisition. Wenqing Liu: Supervision, Conceptualization, Methodology, Data interpretation, Formal analysis, Resources, Investigation, Funding acquisition. Yuanhang Zhang: Supervision, Conceptualization, Methodology, Data interpretation, Formal analysis, Resources, Investigation, Funding acquisition. Declaration of competing interest: The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
Group:COVID-19
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Chinese Academy of Engineering2020-ZD-15
National Natural Science Foundation of China22040101
National Natural Science Foundation of China21725701
Scientific Research Fund of Jiangsu Provincial Health CommitteeS2017002
Subject Keywords:COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Exhaled breath; Airborne transmission; Surface-borne
PubMed Central ID:PMC7557302
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201027-093242333
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201027-093242333
Official Citation:Lian Zhou, Maosheng Yao, Xiang Zhang, Bicheng Hu, Xinyue Li, Haoxuan Chen, Lu Zhang, Yun Liu, Meng Du, Bochao Sun, Yunyu Jiang, Kai Zhou, Jie Hong, Na Yu, Zhen Ding, Yan Xu, Min Hu, Lidia Morawska, Sergey A. Grinshpun, Pratim Biswas, Richard C. Flagan, Baoli Zhu, Wenqing Liu, Yuanhang Zhang, Breath-, air- and surface-borne SARS-CoV-2 in hospitals, Journal of Aerosol Science, Volume 152, 2021, 105693, ISSN 0021-8502, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2020.105693. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021850220301786)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106296
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:27 Oct 2020 18:31
Last Modified:02 Feb 2021 20:56

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