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An intermittent extreme BL Lac: MWL study of 1ES 2344+514 in an enhanced state

Acciari, V. A. and Ansoldi, S. and Antonelli, L. A. and Arbet-Engels, A. and Babić, A. and Banerjee, B. and Barres de Almeida, U. and Barrio, J. A. and Becerra González, J. and Bednarek, W. and Bellizzi, L. and Bernardini, E. and Berti, A. and Besenrieder, J. and Bhattacharyya, W. and Bigongiari, C. and Blanch, O. and Bonnoli, G. and Bošnjak, Ž. and Busetto, G. and Carosi, R. and Ceribella, G. and Cerruti, M. and Chai, Y. and Chilingaryan, A. and Cikota, S. and Colak, S. M. and Colin, U. and Colombo, E. and Contreras, J. L. and Cortina, J. and Covino, S. and D’Elia, V. and Da Vela, P. and Dazzi, F. and De Angelis, A. and De Lotto, B. and Delfino, M. and Delgado, J. and Depaoli, D. and Di Pierro, F. and Di Venere, L. and Do Souto Espiñeira, E. and Dominis Prester, D. and Donini, A. and Doro, M. and Elsaesser, D. and Fallah Ramazani, V. and Fattorini, A. and Ferrara, G. and Foffano, L. and Fonseca, M. V. and Font, L. and Fruck, C. and Fukami, S. and García López, R. J. and Garczarczyk, M. and Gasparyan, S. and Gaug, M. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Godinović, N. and Gliwny, P. and Green, D. and Hadasch, D. and Hahn, A. and Herrera, J. and Hoang, J. and Hrupec, D. and Hütten, M. and Inada, T. and Inoue, S. and Ishio, K. and Iwamura, Y. and Jouvin, L. and Kajiwara, Y. and Kerszberg, D. and Kobayashi, Y. and Kubo, H. and Kushida, J. and Lamastra, A. and Lelas, D. and Leone, F. and Lindfors, E. and Lombardi, S. and Longo, F. and Lopez, M. and López-Coto, R. and López-Oramas, A. and Loporchio, S. and Machado de Oliveira Fraga, B. and Maggio, C. and Majumdar, P. and Makariev, M. and Mallamaci, M. and Maneva, G. and Manganaro, M. and Maraschi, L. and Mariotti, M. and Martínez, M. and Mazin, D. and Mender, S. and Mićanović, S. and Miceli, D. and Miener, T. and Minev, M. and Miranda, J. M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Molina, E. and Moralejo, A. and Morcuende, D. and Moreno, V. and Moretti, E. and Munar-Adrover, P. and Neustroev, V. and Nigro, C. and Nilsson, K. and Ninci, D. and Nishijima, K. and Noda, K. and Nogués, L. and Nozaki, S. and Ohtani, Y. and Oka, T. and Otero-Santos, J. and Paiano, S. and Palatiello, M. and Paneque, D. and Paoletti, R. and Paredes, J. M. and Pavletić, L. and Peñil, P. and Peresano, M. and Persic, M. and Prada Moroni, P. G. and Prandini, E. and Puljak, I. and Ribó, M. and Rico, J. and Righi, C. and Rugliancich, A. and Saha, L. and Sahakyan, N. and Saito, T. and Sakurai, S. and Satalecka, K. and Schleicher, B. and Schmidt, K. and Schweizer, T. and Sitarek, J. and Šnidarić, I. and Sobczynska, D. and Spolon, A. and Stamerra, A. and Strom, D. and Strzys, M. and Suda, Y. and Surić, T. and Takahashi, M. and Tavecchio, F. and Temnikov, P. and Terzić, T. and Teshima, M and Torres-Albà, N. and Tosti, L. and van Scherpenberg, J. and Vanzo, G. and Vazquez Acosta, M. and Ventura, S. and Verguilov, V. and Vigorito, C. F. and Vitale, V. and Vovk, I. and Will, M. and Zarić, D. and Baack, D. and Balbo, M. and Beck, M. and Biederbeck, N. and Biland, A. and Blank, M. and Bretz, T. and Bruegge, K. and Bulinski, M. and Buss, J. and Doerr, M. and Dorner, D. and Hildebrand, D. and Iotov, R. and Klinger, M. and Mannheim, K. and Achim Mueller, S. and Neise, D. and Neronov, A. and Nöthe, M. and Paravac, A. and Rhode, W. and Schleicher, B. and Sedlaczek, K. and Shukla, A. and Sliusar, V. and Tani, L. and Theissen, F. and Walter, R. and Acosta Pulido, J. and Filippenko, A. V. and Hovatta, T. and Kiehlmann, S. and Larionov, V. M. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Raiteri, C. M. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Šegon, M. and Villata, M. and Zheng, W. (2020) An intermittent extreme BL Lac: MWL study of 1ES 2344+514 in an enhanced state. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 496 (3). pp. 3912-3928. ISSN 0035-8711.

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Extreme high-frequency BL Lacs (EHBL) feature their synchrotron peak of the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) at ν_s ≥ 10¹⁷ Hz. The BL Lac object 1ES 2344+514 was included in the EHBL family because of its impressive shift of the synchrotron peak in 1996. During the following years, the source appeared to be in a low state without showing any extreme behaviours. In 2016 August, 1ES 2344+514 was detected with the ground-based γ-ray telescope FACT during a high γ-ray state, triggering multiwavelength (MWL) observations. We studied the MWL light curves of 1ES 2344+514 during the 2016 flaring state, using data from radio to very-high-energy (VHE) γ-rays taken with OVRO, KAIT, KVA, NOT, some telescopes of the GASP-WEBT collaboration at the Teide, Crimean, and St. Petersburg observatories, Swift-UVOT, Swift-XRT, Fermi-LAT, FACT, and MAGIC. With simultaneous observations of the flare, we built the broad-band SED and studied it in the framework of a leptonic and a hadronic model. The VHE γ-ray observations show a flux level of 55 per cent of the Crab Nebula flux above 300 GeV, similar to the historical maximum of 1995. The combination of MAGIC and Fermi-LAT spectra provides an unprecedented characterization of the inverse-Compton peak for this object during a flaring episode. The Γ index of the intrinsic spectrum in the VHE γ-ray band is 2.04 ± 0.12_(stat) ± 0.15_(sys). We find the source in an extreme state with a shift of the position of the synchrotron peak to frequencies above or equal to 10¹⁸ Hz.

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http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.frRelated ItemData
Ansoldi, S.0000-0002-5613-7693
Antonelli, L. A.0000-0002-5037-9034
Arbet-Engels, A.0000-0001-9076-9582
Babić, A.0000-0002-1444-5604
Banerjee, B.0000-0002-8008-2485
Barrio, J. A.0000-0002-0965-0259
Bednarek, W.0000-0003-0605-108X
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Berti, A.0000-0003-0396-4190
Bhattacharyya, W.0000-0003-4751-0414
Bigongiari, C.0000-0003-3293-8522
Blanch, O.0000-0002-8380-1633
Bonnoli, G.0000-0003-2464-9077
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Busetto, G.0000-0002-2687-6380
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Colak, S. M.0000-0001-7793-3106
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Dazzi, F.0000-0001-5409-6544
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Font, L.0000-0003-2109-5961
Fruck, C.0000-0001-5880-7518
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Hahn, A.0000-0003-0827-5642
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Hütten, M.0000-0002-2133-5251
Inoue, S.0000-0003-1096-9424
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Kerszberg, D.0000-0002-5289-1509
Kubo, H.0000-0001-9159-9853
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Lelas, D.0000-0002-8269-5760
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Longo, F.0000-0003-2501-2270
López-Coto, R.0000-0002-3882-9477
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Loporchio, S.0000-0003-4457-5431
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Makariev, M.0000-0002-1622-3116
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Manganaro, M.0000-0003-1530-3031
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Martínez, M.0000-0002-9763-9155
Mazin, D.0000-0002-2010-4005
Mender, S.0000-0002-0755-0609
Mićanović, S.0000-0002-0076-3134
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Miranda, J. M.0000-0002-1472-9690
Mirzoyan, R.0000-0003-0163-7233
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Moralejo, A.0000-0002-1344-9080
Morcuende, D.0000-0001-9400-0922
Moreno, V.0000-0002-8358-2098
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Munar-Adrover, P.0000-0002-1942-7376
Neustroev, V.0000-0003-4772-595X
Nigro, C.0000-0001-8375-1907
Nilsson, K.0000-0002-1445-8683
Ninci, D.0000-0002-5031-1849
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Paoletti, R.0000-0003-0158-2826
Paredes, J. M.0000-0002-1566-9044
Pavletić, L.0000-0002-9926-0405
Peresano, M.0000-0002-7537-7334
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Rugliancich, A.0000-0001-5471-4701
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Sahakyan, N.0000-0003-2011-2731
Satalecka, K.0000-0002-7669-266X
Schmidt, K.0000-0002-3418-7251
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Spolon, A.0000-0001-8770-9503
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Suda, Y.0000-0002-2692-5891
Takahashi, M.0000-0002-0574-6018
Tavecchio, F.0000-0003-0256-0995
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Terzić, T.0000-0002-4209-3407
Torres-Albà, N.0000-0003-3638-8943
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Ventura, S.0000-0001-7065-5342
Verguilov, V.0000-0001-7911-1093
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Vitale, V.0000-0001-8040-7852
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Zarić, D.0000-0001-5763-9487
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Biland, A.0000-0002-1288-833X
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Larionov, V. M.0000-0002-4640-4356
Max-Moerbeck, W.0000-0002-5491-5244
Raiteri, C. M.0000-0003-1784-2784
Readhead, A. C. S.0000-0001-9152-961X
Villata, M.0000-0003-1743-6946
Additional Information:© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2020 June 10. Received 2020 June 10; in original form 2019 December 18. Published: 17 June 2020. We would like to thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for the excellent working conditions at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma. The financial support of the German BMBF and MPG, the Italian INFN and INAF, the Swiss National Fund SNF, the ERDF under the Spanish MINECO (FPA2017-87859-P, FPA2017-85668-P, FPA2017-82729-C6-2-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-6-R, FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R, AYA2015-71042-P, AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P, ESP2017-87055-C2-2-P, and FPA2017-90566-REDC), the Indian Department of Atomic Energy, the Japanese JSPS and MEXT, the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science, National RI Roadmap Project DO1-153/28.08.2018, and the Academy of Finland grant no. 320045 is gratefully acknowledged. This work was also supported by the Spanish Centro de Excelencia ‘Severo Ochoa’ SEV-2016-0588 and SEV-2015-0548, and Unidad de Excelencia ‘María de Maeztu’ MDM-2014-0369, by the Croatian Science Foundation (HrZZ) Project IP-2016-06-9782 and the University of Rijeka Project, by the DFG Collaborative Research Centers SFB823/C4 and SFB876/C3, the Polish National Research Centre grant UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382 and by the Brazilian MCTIC, CNPq, and FAPERJ. The FACT collaboration acknowledges the important contributions from ETH Zurich grants ETH-10.08-2 and ETH-27.12-1 as well as the funding by the Swiss SNF and the German BMBF (Verbundforschung Astro- und Astroteilchenphysik) and HAP (Helmoltz Alliance for Astroparticle Physics) are gratefully acknowledged. Part of this work is supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Center SFB 876 ‘Providing Information by Resource-Constrained Analysis’, project C3. We are thankful for the very valuable contributions from E. Lorenz, D. Renker and G. Viertel during the early phase of the project. We thank the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias for allowing us to operate the telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos in La Palma, the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik for providing us with the mount of the former HEGRA CT3 telescope, and the MAGIC collaboration for their support. This article is based partly on observations made with the 1.5 TCS and IAC80 telescopes operated by the IAC in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. This article is also based partly on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescopes in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC. We acknowledge support from Russian Scientific Foundation grant 17-12-01029. AVF and WZ are grateful for support from NASA grant NNX12AF12G, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley). KAIT and its ongoing operation were made possible by donations from Sun Microsystems, Inc., the Hewlett-Packard Company, AutoScope Corporation, Lick Observatory, the US National Science Foundation, the University of California, the Sylvia and Jim Katzman Foundation, and the TABASGO Foundation. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. WM acknowledges support from CONICYT project Basal AFB-170002. The OVRO 40-m monitoring program is supported in part by NASA grants NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX14AQ89G, and NSF grants AST-0808050 and AST-1109911. This research has made use of data and/or software provided by the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), which is a service of the Astrophysics Science Division at NASA/GSFC and the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. We acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive. This research has made use the TeVCat online source catalog ( Part of this work is based on archival data, software or online services provided by the Space Science Data Center - ASI. Data Availability: The complete data set shown in Figs 1 and 5, the data points shown in Figs 6 and 7, and Table 3 are available at the CDS Other data underlying this article will be shared on reasonable request to the corresponding authors.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development Funds (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-87859-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-85668-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-82729-C6-2-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-82729-C6-6-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-82729-C6-5-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-71042-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2017-87055-C2-2-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2017-90566-REDC
Department of Atomic Energy (India)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)DO1-153/28.08.2018
Academy of Finland320045
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2015-0548
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)MDM-2014-0369
Croatian Science FoundationIP-2016-06-9782
University of Rijeka13.
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB823/C4
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB876/C3
National Science Centre (Poland)UMO-2016/22/M/ST9/00382
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
ETH ZurichETH-10.08-2
ETH ZurichETH-27.12-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB 876
Russian Science Foundation17-12-01029
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: active – BL Lacertae objects: individual: 1ES 2344+514 – gamma-rays: galaxies
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201028-070502154
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:MAGIC Collaboration: V A Acciari, S Ansoldi, L A Antonelli, A Arbet Engels, A Babić, B Banerjee, U Barres de Almeida, J A Barrio, J Becerra González, W Bednarek, L Bellizzi, E Bernardini, A Berti, J Besenrieder, W Bhattacharyya, C Bigongiari, O Blanch, G Bonnoli, Ž Bošnjak, G Busetto, R Carosi, G Ceribella, M Cerruti, Y Chai, A Chilingaryan, S Cikota, S M Colak, U Colin, E Colombo, J L Contreras, J Cortina, S Covino, V D’Elia, P Da Vela, F Dazzi, A De Angelis, B De Lotto, M Delfino, J Delgado, D Depaoli, F Di Pierro, L Di Venere, E Do Souto Espiñeira, D Dominis Prester, A Donini, M Doro, D Elsaesser, V Fallah Ramazani, A Fattorini, G Ferrara, L Foffano, M V Fonseca, L Font, C Fruck, S Fukami, R J García López, M Garczarczyk, S Gasparyan, M Gaug, N Giglietto, F Giordano, N Godinović, P Gliwny, D Green, D Hadasch, A Hahn, J Herrera, J Hoang, D Hrupec, M Hütten, T Inada, S Inoue, K Ishio, Y Iwamura, L Jouvin, Y Kajiwara, D Kerszberg, Y Kobayashi, H Kubo, J Kushida, A Lamastra, D Lelas, F Leone, E Lindfors, S Lombardi, F Longo, M López, R López-Coto, A López-Oramas, S Loporchio, B Machado de Oliveira Fraga, C Maggio, P Majumdar, M Makariev, M Mallamaci, G Maneva, M Manganaro, L Maraschi, M Mariotti, M Martínez, D Mazin, S Mender, S Mićanović, D Miceli, T Miener, M Minev, J M Miranda, R Mirzoyan, E Molina, A Moralejo, D Morcuende, V Moreno, E Moretti, P Munar-Adrover, V Neustroev, C Nigro, K Nilsson, D Ninci, K Nishijima, K Noda, L Nogués, S Nozaki, Y Ohtani, T Oka, J Otero-Santos, S Paiano, M Palatiello, D Paneque, R Paoletti, J M Paredes, L Pavletić, P Peñil, M Peresano, M Persic, P G Prada Moroni, E Prandini, I Puljak, M Ribó, J Rico, C Righi, A Rugliancich, L Saha, N Sahakyan, T Saito, S Sakurai, K Satalecka, B Schleicher, K Schmidt, T Schweizer, J Sitarek, I Šnidarić, D Sobczynska, A Spolon, A Stamerra, D Strom, M Strzys, Y Suda, T Surić, M Takahashi, F Tavecchio, P Temnikov, T Terzić, M Teshima, N Torres-Albà, L Tosti, J van Scherpenberg, G Vanzo, M Vazquez Acosta, S Ventura, V Verguilov, C F Vigorito, V Vitale, I Vovk, M Will, D Zarić, FACT Collaboration: D Baack, M Balbo, M Beck, N Biederbeck, A Biland, M Blank, T Bretz, K Bruegge, M Bulinski, J Buss, M Doerr, D Dorner, D Hildebrand, R Iotov, M Klinger, K Mannheim, S Achim Mueller, D Neise, A Neronov, M Nöthe, A Paravac, W Rhode, B Schleicher, K Sedlaczek, A Shukla, V Sliusar, L Tani, F Theissen, R Walter, MWL Collaborators: J Acosta Pulido, A V Filippenko, T Hovatta, S Kiehlmann, V M Larionov, W Max-Moerbeck, C M Raiteri, A C S Readhead, M Šegon, M Villata, W Zheng, An intermittent extreme BL Lac: MWL study of 1ES 2344+514 in an enhanced state, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 496, Issue 3, August 2020, Pages 3912–3928,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106313
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:29 Oct 2020 19:48
Last Modified:29 Oct 2020 19:48

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