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The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Data processing, catalogs, and statistical source properties

Béthermin, M. and Fudamoto, Y. and Ginolfi, M. and Loiacono, F. and Khusanova, Y. and Capak, P. L. and Cassata, P. and Faisst, A. and Le Fèvre, O. and Schaerer, D. and Silverman, J. D. and Yan, L. and Amorin, R. and Bardelli, S. and Boquien, M. and Cimatti, A. and Davidzon, I. and Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. and Fujimoto, S. and Gruppioni, C. and Hathi, N. P. and Ibar, E. and Jones, G. C. and Koekemoer, A. M. and Lagache, G. and Lemaux, B. C. and Moreau, C. and Oesch, P. A. and Pozzi, F. and Riechers, D. A. and Talia, M. and Toft, S. and Vallini, L. and Vergani, D. and Zamorani, G. and Zucca, E. (2020) The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Data processing, catalogs, and statistical source properties. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 643 . Art. No. A2. ISSN 0004-6361.

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The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Large Program to INvestigate [C II] at Early times (ALPINE) targets the [C II] 158 μm line and the far-infrared continuum in 118 spectroscopically confirmed star-forming galaxies between z = 4.4 and z = 5.9. It represents the first large [C II] statistical sample built in this redshift range. We present details regarding the data processing and the construction of the catalogs. We detected 23 of our targets in the continuum. To derive accurate infrared luminosities and obscured star formation rates (SFRs), we measured the conversion factor from the ALMA 158 μm rest-frame dust continuum luminosity to the total infrared luminosity (L_(IR)) after constraining the dust spectral energy distribution by stacking a photometric sample similar to ALPINE in ancillary single-dish far-infrared data. We found that our continuum detections have a median L_(IR) of 4.4 × 10¹¹ L_⊙. We also detected 57 additional continuum sources in our ALMA pointings. They are at a lower redshift than the ALPINE targets, with a mean photometric redshift of 2.5 ± 0.2. We measured the 850 μm number counts between 0.35 and 3.5 mJy, thus improving the current interferometric constraints in this flux density range. We found a slope break in the number counts around 3 mJy with a shallower slope below this value. More than 40% of the cosmic infrared background is emitted by sources brighter than 0.35 mJy. Finally, we detected the [C II] line in 75 of our targets. Their median [C II] luminosity is 4.8 × 10⁸ L_⊙ and their median full width at half maximum is 252 km s⁻¹. After measuring the mean obscured SFR in various [C II] luminosity bins by stacking ALPINE continuum data, we find a good agreement between our data and the local and predicted SFR–L_([C II]) relations.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Béthermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
Fudamoto, Y.0000-0001-7440-8832
Ginolfi, M.0000-0002-8231-821X
Loiacono, F.0000-0002-8858-6784
Khusanova, Y.0000-0002-7220-397X
Capak, P. L.0000-0003-3578-6843
Cassata, P.0000-0002-6716-4400
Faisst, A.0000-0002-9382-9832
Le Fèvre, O.0000-0001-5891-2596
Schaerer, D.0000-0001-7144-7182
Silverman, J. D.0000-0002-0000-6977
Yan, L.0000-0003-1710-9339
Amorin, R.0000-0001-5758-1000
Bardelli, S.0000-0002-8900-0298
Boquien, M.0000-0003-0946-6176
Cimatti, A.0000-0002-4409-5633
Davidzon, I.0000-0002-2951-7519
Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.0000-0003-0348-2917
Fujimoto, S.0000-0001-7201-5066
Gruppioni, C.0000-0002-5836-4056
Hathi, N. P.0000-0001-6145-5090
Jones, G. C.0000-0002-0267-9024
Koekemoer, A. M.0000-0002-6610-2048
Lagache, G.0000-0003-1492-2519
Lemaux, B. C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Oesch, P. A.0000-0001-5851-6649
Pozzi, F.0000-0002-7412-647X
Riechers, D. A.0000-0001-9585-1462
Talia, M.0000-0003-4352-2063
Toft, S.0000-0003-3631-7176
Vallini, L.0000-0002-3258-3672
Vergani, D.0000-0003-0898-2216
Zamorani, G.0000-0002-2318-301X
Zucca, E.0000-0002-5845-8132
Additional Information:© M. Béthermin et al. 2020. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received 3 February 2020; Accepted 4 June 2020; Published online 27 October 2020. We thanks the ALMA observatory staff for their support and in particular Edwige Chapillon, our ALMA contact scientist, for her very useful advice. MB acknowledges Mladan Novak for his excellent advice about the photometry in interferometric surveys. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2017.1.00428.L. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. This research made use of Astropy (, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration 2013, 2018). This program receives funding from the CNRS national program Cosmology and Galaxies. A.C., C.G., F.L., F.P., and M.T. acknowledge the support from grant PRINMIUR 2017 20173ML3WW_001. DR acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under grant numbers AST-1614213 and AST-1910107 and from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers. G.C.J. acknowledges ERC Advanced Grant 695671 “QUENCH” and support by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). E.I. acknowledges partial support from FONDECYT through grant N° 1171710. GL acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project CONCERTO, grant agreement No 788212) and from the Excellence Initiative of Aix-Marseille University-A*Midex, a French “Investissements d’Avenir” programme. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Le Fèvre, PI of the ALPINE survey.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)20173ML3WW_001
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)695671
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171710
European Research Council (ERC)788212
Aix-Marseille UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Investissements d’Avenir programUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: ISM – galaxies: star formation – galaxies: high-redshift – submillimeter: galaxies
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201028-144838174
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Data processing, catalogs, and statistical source properties. M. Béthermin, Y. Fudamoto, M. Ginolfi, F. Loiacono, Y. Khusanova, P. L. Capak, P. Cassata, A. Faisst, O. Le Fèvre, D. Schaerer, J. D. Silverman, L. Yan, R. Amorin, S. Bardelli, M. Boquien, A. Cimatti, I. Davidzon, M. Dessauges-Zavadsky, S. Fujimoto, C. Gruppioni, N. P. Hathi, E. Ibar, G. C. Jones, A. M. Koekemoer, G. Lagache, B. C. Lemaux, C. Moreau, P. A. Oesch, F. Pozzi, D. A. Riechers, M. Talia, S. Toft, L. Vallini, D. Vergani, G. Zamorani and E. Zucca. A&A, 643 (2020) A2; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106340
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:29 Oct 2020 15:50
Last Modified:29 Oct 2020 16:55

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