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The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey. Little to no evolution in the [C II]–SFR relation over the last 13 Gyr

Schaerer, D. and Ginolfi, M. and Béthermin, M. and Fudamoto, Y. and Oesch, P. A. and Le Fèvre, O. and Faisst, A. and Capak, P. and Cassata, P. and Silverman, J. D. and Yan, Lin and Jones, G. C. and Amorin, R. and Bardelli, S. and Boquien, M. and Cimatti, A. and Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. and Giavalisco, M. and Hathi, N. P. and Fujimoto, S. and Ibar, E. and Koekemoer, A. and Lagache, G. and Lemaux, B. C. and Loiacono, F. and Maiolino, R. and Narayanan, D. and Morselli, L. and Méndez-Hernández, H. and Pozzi, F. and Riechers, D. and Talia, M. and Toft, S. and Vallini, L. and Vergani, D. and Zamorani, G. and Zucca, E. (2020) The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey. Little to no evolution in the [C II]–SFR relation over the last 13 Gyr. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 643 . Art. No. A3. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202037617.

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The [C II] 158 μm line is one of the strongest IR emission lines, which has been shown to trace the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies in the nearby Universe, and up to z ∼ 2. Whether this is also the case at higher redshift and in the early Universe remains debated. The ALPINE survey, which targeted 118 star-forming galaxies at 4.4 <  z <  5.9, provides a new opportunity to examine this question with the first statistical dataset. Using the ALPINE data and earlier measurements from the literature, we examine the relation between the [C II] luminosity and the SFR over the entire redshift range from z ∼ 4 − 8. ALPINE galaxies, which are both detected in [C II] and in dust continuum, show good agreement with the local L([C II])–SFR relation. Galaxies undetected in the continuum by ALMA are found to be over-luminous in [C II] when the UV SFR is used. After accounting for dust-obscured star formation, by an amount of SFR(IR) ≈ SFR(UV) on average, which results from two different stacking methods and SED fitting, the ALPINE galaxies show an L([C II])–SFR relation comparable to the local one. When [C II] non-detections are taken into account, the slope may be marginally steeper at high-z, although this is still somewhat uncertain. When compared homogeneously, the z >  6 [C II] measurements (detections and upper limits) do not behave very differently to the z ∼ 4 − 6 data. We find a weak dependence of L([C II])/SFR on the Lyα equivalent width. Finally, we find that the ratio L([C II])/L_(IR) ∼ (1 − 3) × 10⁻³ for the ALPINE sources, comparable to that of “normal” galaxies at lower redshift. Our analysis, which includes the largest sample (∼150 galaxies) of [C II] measurements at z > 4 available so far, suggests no or little evolution of the [C II]–SFR relation over the last 13 Gyr of cosmic time.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Schaerer, D.0000-0001-7144-7182
Ginolfi, M.0000-0002-8231-821X
Béthermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
Fudamoto, Y.0000-0001-7440-8832
Oesch, P. A.0000-0001-5851-6649
Le Fèvre, O.0000-0001-5891-2596
Faisst, A.0000-0002-9382-9832
Capak, P.0000-0003-3578-6843
Cassata, P.0000-0002-6716-4400
Silverman, J. D.0000-0002-0000-6977
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Jones, G. C.0000-0002-0267-9024
Amorin, R.0000-0001-5758-1000
Bardelli, S.0000-0002-8900-0298
Boquien, M.0000-0003-0946-6176
Cimatti, A.0000-0002-4409-5633
Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.0000-0003-0348-2917
Giavalisco, M.0000-0002-7831-8751
Hathi, N. P.0000-0001-6145-5090
Fujimoto, S.0000-0001-7201-5066
Koekemoer, A.0000-0002-6610-2048
Lagache, G.0000-0003-1492-2519
Lemaux, B. C.0000-0002-1428-7036
Loiacono, F.0000-0002-8858-6784
Maiolino, R.0000-0002-4985-3819
Narayanan, D.0000-0002-7064-4309
Morselli, L.0000-0003-0753-2571
Méndez-Hernández, H.0000-0003-3057-9677
Pozzi, F.0000-0002-7412-647X
Riechers, D.0000-0001-9585-1462
Talia, M.0000-0003-4352-2063
Toft, S.0000-0003-3631-7176
Vallini, L.0000-0002-3258-3672
Vergani, D.0000-0003-0898-2216
Zamorani, G.0000-0002-2318-301X
Zucca, E.0000-0002-5845-8132
Additional Information:© 2020 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 29 January 2020; Accepted 29 April 2020; Published online 27 October 2020. This paper is based on data obtained with the ALMA Observatory, under Large Program 2017.1.00428.L. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF(USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. DS, MG and MD acknowledge support from the Swiss National Science Foundation. AC, CG, FL, FP and MT acknowledge the support from grant PRIN MIUR 2017 – 20173ML3WW_001. EI acknowledges partial support from FONDECYT through grant N° 1171710. GCJ and RM acknowledge ERC Advanced Grant 695671 “QUENCH" and support by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). GL acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project CONCERTO, grant agreement No. 788212) and from the Excellence Initiative of Aix-Marseille University-A*Midex, a French “Investissements d’Avenir” programme. DR acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under grant numbers AST-1614213 and AST-1910107 and from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through a Humboldt Research Fellowship for Experienced Researchers. ST acknowledges support from the ERC Consolidator Grant funding scheme (project ConTExT, grant No. 648179). The Cosmic DAWN Center is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation under grant No. 140 LV acknowledges funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant agreement No. 746119. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Olivier Le Fèvre, PI of the ALPINE survey.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)20173ML3WW_001
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171710
European Research Council (ERC)695671
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)788212
Aix-Marseille UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)648179
Danish National Research Foundation140
Marie Curie Fellowship746119
Subject Keywords:galaxies: high-redshift – galaxies: star formation – galaxies: formation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201029-132035957
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey - Little to no evolution in the [C II]–SFR relation over the last 13 Gyr. D. Schaerer, M. Ginolfi, M. Béthermin, Y. Fudamoto, P. A. Oesch, O. Le Fèvre, A. Faisst, P. Capak, P. Cassata, J. D. Silverman, Lin Yan, G. C. Jones, R. Amorin, S. Bardelli, M. Boquien, A. Cimatti, M. Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. Giavalisco, N. P. Hathi, S. Fujimoto, E. Ibar, A. Koekemoer, G. Lagache, B. C. Lemaux, F. Loiacono, R. Maiolino, D. Narayanan, L. Morselli, H. Méndez-Hernàndez, F. Pozzi, D. Riechers, M. Talia, S. Toft, L. Vallini, D. Vergani, G. Zamorani and E. Zucca. A&A, 643 (2020) A3; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106344
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:29 Oct 2020 21:15
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:53

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