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Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Weighing Distant Clusters with the Most Ancient Light

Madhavacheril, Mathew S. and Sifón, Cristóbal and Battaglia, Nicholas and Aiola, Simone and Amodeo, Stefania and Austermann, Jason E. and Beall, James A. and Becker, Daniel T. and Bond, J. Richard and Calabrese, Erminia and Choi, Steve K. and Denison, Edward V. and Devlin, Mark J. and Dicker, Simon R. and Duff, Shannon M. and Duivenvoorden, Adriaan J. and Dunkley, Jo and Dünner, Rolando and Ferraro, Simone and Gallardo, Patricio A. and Guan, Yilun and Han, Dongwon and Hill, J. Colin and Hilton, Gene C. and Hilton, Matt and Hubmayr, Johannes and Huffenberger, Kevin M. and Hughes, John P. and Koopman, Brian J. and Kosowsky, Arthur and Van Lanen, Jeff and Lee, Eunseong and Louis, Thibaut and MacInnis, Amanda and McMahon, Jeffrey and Moodley, Kavilan and Naess, Sigurd and Namikawa, Toshiya and Nati, Federico and Newburgh, Laura and Niemack, Michael D. and Page, Lyman A. and Partridge, Bruce and Qu, Frank J. and Robertson, Naomi C. and Salatino, Maria and Schaan, Emmanuel and Schillaci, Alessandro and Schmitt, Benjamin L. and Sehgal, Neelima and Sherwin, Blake D. and Simon, Sara M. and Spergel, David N. and Staggs, Suzanne and Storer, Emilie R. and Ullom, Joel N. and Vale, Leila R. and van Engelen, Alexander and Vavagiakis, Eve M. and Wollack, Edward J. and Xu, Zhilei (2020) Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Weighing Distant Clusters with the Most Ancient Light. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 903 (1). Art. No. L13. ISSN 2041-8213. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201030-135425518

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Abstract

We use gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to measure the mass of the most distant blindly selected sample of galaxy clusters on which a lensing measurement has been performed to date. In CMB data from the the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the Planck satellite, we detect the stacked lensing effect from 677 near-infrared-selected galaxy clusters from the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS), which have a mean redshift of ⟨z⟩ = 1.08. There are currently no representative optical weak lensing measurements of clusters that match the distance and average mass of this sample. We detect the lensing signal with a significance of 4.2σ. We model the signal with a halo model framework to find the mean mass of the population from which these clusters are drawn. Assuming that the clusters follow Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profiles, we infer a mean mass of ⟨M_(500c)⟩ = (1.7±0.4)×10¹⁴M⊙. We consider systematic uncertainties from cluster redshift errors, centering errors, and the shape of the NFW profile. These are all smaller than 30% of our reported uncertainty. This work highlights the potential of CMB lensing to enable cosmological constraints from the abundance of distant clusters populating ever larger volumes of the observable universe, beyond the capabilities of optical weak lensing measurements.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/abbccbDOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.07772arXivDiscussion Paper
https://github.com/ACTCollaboration/madcows_lensing/Related ItemCode
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Madhavacheril, Mathew S.0000-0001-6740-5350
Sifón, Cristóbal0000-0002-8149-1352
Battaglia, Nicholas0000-0001-5846-0411
Aiola, Simone0000-0002-1035-1854
Amodeo, Stefania0000-0002-4200-9965
Austermann, Jason E.0000-0002-6338-0069
Bond, J. Richard0000-0003-0837-0068
Choi, Steve K.0000-0002-9113-7058
Devlin, Mark J.0000-0002-3169-9761
Dicker, Simon R.0000-0002-1940-4289
Duff, Shannon M.0000-0002-9693-4478
Ferraro, Simone0000-0003-4992-7854
Gallardo, Patricio A.0000-0001-9731-3617
Hill, J. Colin0000-0002-9539-0835
Hilton, Gene C.0000-0003-4247-467X
Hilton, Matt0000-0002-8490-8117
Hubmayr, Johannes0000-0002-2781-9302
Huffenberger, Kevin M.0000-0001-7109-0099
Hughes, John P.0000-0002-8816-6800
Koopman, Brian J.0000-0003-0744-2808
Kosowsky, Arthur0000-0002-3734-331X
Moodley, Kavilan0000-0001-6606-7142
Naess, Sigurd0000-0002-4478-7111
Namikawa, Toshiya0000-0003-3070-9240
Nati, Federico0000-0002-8307-5088
Niemack, Michael D.0000-0001-7125-3580
Page, Lyman A.0000-0002-9828-3525
Partridge, Bruce0000-0001-6541-9265
Salatino, Maria0000-0003-4006-1134
Schaan, Emmanuel0000-0002-4619-8927
Schillaci, Alessandro0000-0002-0512-1042
Sehgal, Neelima0000-0002-9674-4527
Spergel, David N.0000-0002-5151-0006
Staggs, Suzanne0000-0002-7020-7301
Ullom, Joel N.0000-0003-2486-4025
Vale, Leila R.0000-0001-8561-2580
Vavagiakis, Eve M.0000-0002-2105-7589
Wollack, Edward J.0000-0002-7567-4451
Xu, Zhilei0000-0001-5112-2567
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 September 16; revised 2020 September 29; accepted 2020 September 29; published 2020 October 29. We thank Peter Melchior for helpful discussions. Software used for this analysis includes healpy (Zonca et al. 2019), HEALPix (Górski et al. 2005), and Astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018). Research at the Perimeter Institute is supported in part by the Government of Canada through the Department of Innovation, Science and Industry Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Colleges and Universities. C.S. acknowledges support from the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID) through FONDECYT Iniciación grant No. 11191125. N.B. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1910021. E.C. acknowledges support from the STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowship ST/M004856/2 and STFC Consolidated grant ST/S00033X/1, and from the Horizon 2020 ERC Starting Grant (grant agreement No. 849169). J.D. is supported through NSF grant AST-1814971. R.D. thanks CONICYT for grant BASAL CATA AFB-170002. D.H., A.M., and N.S. acknowledge support from NSF grant numbers AST-1513618 and AST-1907657. M.H.i. acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation. J.P.H. acknowledges funding for SZ cluster studies from NSF grant No. AST-1615657. K.M. acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through awards AST-1440226, AST0965625, and AST-0408698 for the ACT project, as well as awards PHY-1214379 and PHY-0855887. Funding was also provided by Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and a Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) award to UBC. ACT operates in the Parque Astronómico Atacama in northern Chile under the auspices of the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica de Chile (CONICYT). Computations were performed on the GPC and Niagara supercomputers at the SciNet HPC Consortium. SciNet is funded by the CFI under the auspices of Compute Canada, the Government of Ontario, the Ontario Research Fund—Research Excellence, and the University of Toronto. The development of multichroic detectors and lenses was supported by NASA grants NNX13AE56G and NNX14AB58G. Colleagues at AstroNorte and RadioSky provide logistical support and keep operations in Chile running smoothly. We also thank the Mishrahi Fund and the Wilkinson Fund for their generous support of the project. This document was prepared by Atacama Cosmology Telescope using the resources of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, HEP User Facility. Fermilab is managed by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC (FRA), acting under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (Canada)UNSPECIFIED
Industry CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Ontario Ministry of Colleges and UniversitiesUNSPECIFIED
Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (ANID)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)11191125
NSFAST-1910021
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M004856/2
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00033X/1
European Research Council (ERC)849169
NSFAST-1814971
BASAL-CATAAFB-170002
NSFAST-1513618
NSFAST-1907657
NSFAST-1615657
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1440226
NSFAST-0965625
NSFAST-0408698
NSFPHY-1214379
NSFPHY-0855887
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)UNSPECIFIED
Compute CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Government of OntarioUNSPECIFIED
Ontario Research Fund-Research ExcellenceUNSPECIFIED
University of TorontoUNSPECIFIED
NASANNX13AE56G
NASANNX14AB58G
Mishrahi FundUNSPECIFIED
Wilkinson FundUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-07CH11359
Subject Keywords:Cosmology ; High-redshift galaxy clusters ; Cosmic microwave background radiation ; Gravitational lensing
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Cosmology (343); High-redshift galaxy clusters (2007); Cosmic microwave background radiation (322); Gravitational lensing (670)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201030-135425518
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201030-135425518
Official Citation:Mathew S. Madhavacheril et al 2020 ApJL 903 L13
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106364
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 Oct 2020 21:36
Last Modified:30 Oct 2020 21:36

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