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Discovery of a hot, transiting, Earth-sized planet and a second temperate, non-transiting planet around the M4 dwarf GJ 3473 (TOI-488)

Kemmer, J. and Stock, S. and Kossakowski, D. and Kaminski, A. and Molaverdikhani, K. and Schlecker, M. and Caballero, J. A. and Amado, P. J. and Astudillo-Defru, N. and Bonfils, X. and Ciardi, D. and Collins, K. A. and Espinoza, N. and Fukui, A. and Hirano, T. and Jenkins, J. M. and Latham, D. W. and Matthews, E. C. and Narita, N. and Pallé, E. and Parviainen, H. and Quirrenbach, A. and Reiners, A. and Ribas, I. and Ricker, G. and Schlieder, J. E. and Seager, S. and Vanderspek, R. and Winn, J. N. and Almenara, J. M. and Béjar, V. J. S. and Bluhm, P. and Bouchy, F. and Boyd, P. and Christiansen, J. L. and Cifuentes, C. and Cloutier, R. and Collins, K. I. and Cortés-Contreras, M. and Crossfield, I. J. M. and Crouzet, N. and de Leon, J. P. and Della-Rose, D. D. and Delfosse, X. and Dreizler, S. and Esparza-Borges, E. and Essack, Z. and Forveille, Th. and Figueira, P. and Galadí-Enríquez, D. and Gan, T. and Glidden, A. and Gonzales, E. J. and Guerra, P. and Harakawa, H. and Hatzes, A. P. and Henning, Th. and Herrero, E. and Hodapp, K. and Hori, Y. and Howell, S. B. and Ikoma, M. and Isogai, K. and Jeffers, S. V. and Kürster, M. and Kawauchi, K. and Kimura, T. and Klagyivik, P. and Kotani, T. and Kurokawa, T. and Kusakabe, N. and Kuzuhara, M. and Lafarga, M. and Livingston, J. H. and Luque, R. and Matson, R. and Morales, J. C. and Mori, M. and Muirhead, P. S. and Murgas, F. and Nishikawa, J. and Nishiumi, T. and Omiya, M. and Reffert, S. and Rodríguez López, C. and Santos, N. C. and Schöfer, P. and Schwarz, R. P. and Shiao, B. and Tamura, M. and Terada, Y. and Twicken, J. D. and Ueda, A. and Vievard, S. and Watanabe, N. and Zechmeister, M. (2020) Discovery of a hot, transiting, Earth-sized planet and a second temperate, non-transiting planet around the M4 dwarf GJ 3473 (TOI-488). Astronomy and Astrophysics, 642 . Art. No. A236. ISSN 0004-6361.

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We present the confirmation and characterisation of GJ 3473 b (G 50–16, TOI-488.01), a hot Earth-sized planet orbiting an M4 dwarf star, whose transiting signal (P = 1.1980035 ± 0.0000018 d) was first detected by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Through a joint modelling of follow-up radial velocity observations with CARMENES, IRD, and HARPS together with extensive ground-based photometric follow-up observations with LCOGT, MuSCAT, and MuSCAT2, we determined a precise planetary mass, M_b = 1.86 ± 0.30 M_⊕, and radius, R_b = 1.264 ± 0.050 R⊕. Additionally, we report the discovery of a second, temperate, non-transiting planet in the system, GJ 3473 c, which has a minimum mass, Mc sin i = 7.41 ± 0.91 M_⊕, and orbital period, P_c = 15.509 ± 0.033 d. The inner planet of the system, GJ 3473 b, is one of the hottest transiting Earth-sized planets known thus far, accompanied by a dynamical mass measurement, which makes it a particularly attractive target for thermal emission spectroscopy.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Kemmer, J.0000-0003-3929-1442
Stock, S.0000-0002-1166-9338
Kossakowski, D.0000-0002-0436-7833
Bonfils, X.0000-0001-9003-8894
Ciardi, D.0000-0002-5741-3047
Espinoza, N.0000-0001-9513-1449
Fukui, A.0000-0002-4909-5763
Latham, D. W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Matthews, E. C.0000-0003-0593-1560
Parviainen, H.0000-0001-5519-1391
Schlieder, J. E.0000-0001-5347-7062
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, J. N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Boyd, P.0000-0003-0442-4284
Christiansen, J. L.0000-0002-8035-4778
Cifuentes, C.0000-0003-1715-5087
Cloutier, R.0000-0001-5383-9393
Collins, K. I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Crossfield, I. J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Essack, Z.0000-0002-2482-0180
Galadí-Enríquez, D.0000-0003-4946-5653
Gan, T.0000-0002-4503-9705
Guerra, P.0000-0002-4308-2339
Hodapp, K.0000-0003-0786-2140
Hori, Y.0000-0003-4676-0251
Howell, S. B.0000-0002-2532-2853
Ikoma, M.0000-0002-5658-5971
Kusakabe, N.0000-0001-9194-1268
Luque, R.0000-0002-4671-2957
Matson, R.0000-0001-7233-7508
Muirhead, P. S.0000-0002-0638-8822
Nishiumi, T.0000-0003-1510-8981
Schöfer, P.0000-0002-5969-3708
Schwarz, R. P.0000-0001-8227-1020
Tamura, M.0000-0002-6510-0681
Terada, Y.0000-0002-2359-1857
Twicken, J. D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Additional Information:© ESO 2020. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 18 July 2020; Accepted 10 September 2020; Published online 23 October 2020. CARMENES is an instrument at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES was funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Insitut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. Part of this work was funded by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación via projects PID2019-109522GB-C51/2/3/4 and AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, (MEXT/)JSPS KAKENHI via grants 15H02063, JP17H04574, 18H05442, JP18H01265, JP18H05439, 19J11805, JP19K14783, and 22000005, JST PRESTO via grant JPMJPR1775, FCT/MCTES through national funds (PIDDAC, PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017) via grant UID/FIS/04434/2019, FEDER – Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional through COMPETE2020 – Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113), the FONDECYT project 3180063, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through national funds and by FEDER through COMPETE2020 – Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalização by these grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019; UIDB/04434/2020; UIDP/04434/2020; PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113; PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953. and the International Graduate Program for Excellence in Earth-Space Science. Part of the data analysis was carried out on the Multi-wavelength Data Analysis System operated by the Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS Alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. The analysis of this work has made use of a wide variety of public available software packages that are not referenced in the manuscript: Exo-Striker (Trifonov 2019), astropy (Astropy Collaboration 2018), scipy (Virtanen et al. 2020), numpy (Oliphant 2006), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), tqdm (da Costa-Luis 2019), pandas (The pandas development team 2020), seaborn (Waskom et al. 2020), lightkurve (Lightkurve Collaboration 2018) and PyFITS (Barrett et al. 2012).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)FOR2544
Klaus Tschira StiftungUNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PID2019-109522GB-C51/2/3/4
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)15H02063
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H04574
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H05442
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H01265
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H05439
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)19J11805
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP19K14783
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)22000005
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UID/FIS/04434/2019
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)COMPETE2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)3180063
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UID/FIS/04434/2019
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDP/04434/2020
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953
University of TokyoUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:planetary systems – planets and satellites: detection – techniques: radial velocities – techniques: photometric – stars: late-type – stars: individual: G 50-16
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201102-092227642
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Discovery of a hot, transiting, Earth-sized planet and a second temperate, non-transiting planet around the M4 dwarf GJ 3473 (TOI-488). J. Kemmer, S. Stock, D. Kossakowski, A. Kaminski, K. Molaverdikhani, M. Schlecker, J. A. Caballero, P. J. Amado, N. Astudillo-Defru, X. Bonfils, D. Ciardi, K. A. Collins, N. Espinoza, A. Fukui, T. Hirano, J. M. Jenkins, D. W. Latham, E. C. Matthews, N. Narita, E. Pallé, H. Parviainen, A. Quirrenbach, A. Reiners, I. Ribas, G. Ricker, J. E. Schlieder, S. Seager, R. Vanderspek, J. N. Winn, J. M. Almenara, V. J. S. Béjar, P. Bluhm, F. Bouchy, P. Boyd, J. L. Christiansen, C. Cifuentes, R. Cloutier, K. I. Collins, M. Cortés-Contreras, I. J M. Crossfield, N. Crouzet, J. P. de Leon, D. D. Della-Rose, X. Delfosse, S. Dreizler, E. Esparza-Borges, Z. Essack, Th. Forveille, P. Figueira, D. Galadí-Enríquez, T. Gan, A. Glidden, E. J. Gonzales, P. Guerra, H. Harakawa, A. P. Hatzes, Th. Henning, E. Herrero, K. Hodapp, Y. Hori, S. B. Howell, M. Ikoma, K. Isogai, S. V. Jeffers, M. Kürster, K. Kawauchi, T. Kimura, P. Klagyivik, T. Kotani, T. Kurokawa, N. Kusakabe, M. Kuzuhara, M. Lafarga, J. H. Livingston, R. Luque, R. Matson, J. C. Morales, M. Mori, P. S. Muirhead, F. Murgas, J. Nishikawa, T. Nishiumi, M. Omiya, S. Reffert, C. Rodríguez López, N. C. Santos, P. Schöfer, R. P. Schwarz, B. Shiao, M. Tamura, Y. Terada, J. D. Twicken, A. Ueda, S. Vievard, N. Watanabe and M. Zechmeister. A&A, 642 (2020) A236; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106378
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Nov 2020 20:27
Last Modified:04 Nov 2020 20:27

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