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3D Architected Carbon Electrodes for Energy Storage

Narita, Kai and Citrin, Michael A. and Yang, Heng and Xia, Xiaoxing and Greer, Julia R. (2021) 3D Architected Carbon Electrodes for Energy Storage. Advanced Energy Materials, 11 (5). Art. No. 2002637. ISSN 1614-6832. doi:10.1002/aenm.202002637.

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The ability to design a particular geometry of porous electrodes at multiple length scales in a lithium‐ion battery can significantly and positively influence battery performance because it enables control over distribution of current and potential and can enhance ion and electron transport. 3D architecturally designed carbon electrodes are developed, whose structural factors are independently controlled and whose dimensions span micrometers to centimeters, using digital light processing and pyrolysis. These free‐standing lattice electrodes are comprised of monolithic glassy carbon beams, are lightweight, with a relative density of 0.1–0.35, and mechanically robust, with a maximum precollapse stress of 27 MPa, which facilitates electrode recycling. The specific strength is 101 kN m kg⁻¹, comparable to that of 6061 aluminum alloy. These carbon electrodes can reach a mass loading of 70 mg cm⁻² and an areal capacity of 3.2 mAh cm⁻² at a current density of 2.4 mA cm⁻². It is demonstrated that this approach allows for independent design of structural factors, i.e., beam diameter, electrode thickness, and surface morphology, enabling control over Li‐ion transport length, overpotential and battery performance, not available for slurry‐based electrodes. This multiscale approach to design of electrodes may open substantial performance‐enhancing capabilities for solid‐ and liquid‐state batteries, flow batteries, and fuel cells.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Narita, Kai0000-0002-3867-8234
Citrin, Michael A.0000-0001-8183-5437
Yang, Heng0000-0001-7431-932X
Xia, Xiaoxing0000-0003-1255-3289
Greer, Julia R.0000-0002-9675-1508
Additional Information:© 2020 Wiley-VCH GmbH. Received: August 21, 2020; Revised: October 4, 2020; Published online: November 9, 2020. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of DoD through J.R.G.'s Vannevar Bush Faculty Fellowship and of the Takenaka Scholarship Foundation through K.N.'s graduate fellowship. They acknowledge the financial support of the Masason Foundation. The helpful advice and assistance of Brandan Taing, Daiju Uehara, Kudo Akira, and John Thorne are heartily acknowledged. The authors would like to thank Jon‐Hung Kan for TG analysis, Carol Garland for TEM operation, Yuchen Wei for compression tests, and Joseph Jing for kindly providing a CMOS camera for in situ observations. They are also immensely grateful to Shu Yan for the 3D illustrations. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Vannever Bush Faculty FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Takenaka Scholarship FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Masason FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:3D architected electrodes; electrode structural engineering; form factors; lithium‐ion batteries
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201109-112630307
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Narita, K., Citrin, M. A., Yang, H., Xia, X., Greer, J. R., 3D Architected Carbon Electrodes for Energy Storage. Adv. Energy Mater. 2021, 11, 2002637.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106506
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:09 Nov 2020 21:41
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:54

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