A Caltech Library Service

Dynamic Walking: Toward Agile and Efficient Bipedal Robots

Reher, Jenna and Ames, Aaron D. (2020) Dynamic Walking: Toward Agile and Efficient Bipedal Robots. . (Unpublished)

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Dynamic walking on bipedal robots has evolved from an idea in science fiction to a practical reality. This is due to continued progress in three key areas: a mathematical understanding of locomotion, the computational ability to encode this mathematics through optimization, and the hardware capable of realizing this understanding in practice. In this context, this review article outlines the end-to-end process of methods which have proven effective in the literature for achieving dynamic walking on bipedal robots. We begin by introducing mathematical models of locomotion, from reduced order models that capture essential walking behaviors to hybrid dynamical systems that encode the full order continuous dynamics along with discrete footstrike dynamics. These models form the basis for gait generation via (nonlinear) optimization problems. Finally, models and their generated gaits merge in the context of real-time control, wherein walking behaviors are translated to hardware. The concepts presented are illustrated throughout in simulation, and experimental instantiation on multiple walking platforms are highlighted to demonstrate the ability to realize dynamic walking on bipedal robots that is agile and efficient.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Reher, Jenna0000-0002-8297-3847
Ames, Aaron D.0000-0003-0848-3177
Additional Information:The authors would like to thank the members of AMBER Lab whom have contributed to the understanding of robotic walking summarized in this paper. Of special note are Shishir Kolathaya, Wenlong Ma, Ayonga Heried, Eric Ambrose and Matthew Powell for their work on AMBER 1, 2 and 3M and DURUS, from developing the theory, to computational methods, to experimental realization. Outside of AMBER Lab, the authors would like to thank their many collaborators. Of particular note is Jessy Grizzle and the joint efforts on HZD and CLFs. This work was supported over the years by the National Science Foundation, including awards: CPS-1239055, CNS-0953823, NRI-1526519, CNS-1136104, CPS-1544857. Other support includes projects from NASA, DARPA, SRI, and Disney. The authors are not aware of any afilliations, memberships, funding, or financial holdings that might be perceived as affecting the objectivity of this review.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:robotics, control theory, optimization, hybrid systems, bipedal robots, dynamic walking
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201109-155514089
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106566
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:10 Nov 2020 15:19
Last Modified:10 Nov 2020 15:19

Repository Staff Only: item control page