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Collective behavior in the kinetics and equilibrium of solid-state photoreaction

Bai, Ruobing and Teh, Ying Shi and Bhattacharya, Kaushik (2021) Collective behavior in the kinetics and equilibrium of solid-state photoreaction. Extreme Mechanics Letters, 43 . Art. No. 101160. ISSN 2352-4316. doi:10.1016/j.eml.2020.101160.

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There is current interest in developing photoactive materials that deform on illumination. The strategy is to develop new photoactive molecules in solution, and then to incorporate these in the solid-state either by crystallization or by inserting them into polymers. This letter shows that the kinetics and the nature of the photo-induced phase transitions are profoundly different in single molecules (solution) and in the solid state using a lattice spin model. In solution, where the molecules act independently, the photoreaction follows first-order kinetics. However, in the solid state where the photoactive molecules interact with each other and therefore behave collectively during reaction, photoreactions follow the sigmoidal kinetics of nucleation and growth as in a first-order phase transition. Further, we find that the exact nature of the photo-induced strain has a critical effect on the kinetics, equilibrium, and microstructure formation. These predictions agree qualitatively with experimental observations, and provide insights for the development of new photoactive materials.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Bai, Ruobing0000-0002-5847-0502
Teh, Ying Shi0000-0003-1743-4158
Bhattacharya, Kaushik0000-0003-2908-5469
Additional Information:© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. Received 8 November 2020, Revised 21 December 2020, Accepted 21 December 2020, Available online 28 December 2020. We gratefully acknowledge many stimulating discussions with Christopher Bardeen. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, United States through the MURI on Photomechanical Material Systems (ONR N00014-18-1-2624). The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N00014-18-1-2624
Subject Keywords:Photoactive materials; Stimuli responsive materials
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201111-073222508
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ruobing Bai, Ying Shi Teh, Kaushik Bhattacharya, Collective behavior in the kinetics and equilibrium of solid-state photoreaction, Extreme Mechanics Letters, Volume 43, 2021, 101160, ISSN 2352-4316, (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106602
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:11 Nov 2020 16:58
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:55

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