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Planck intermediate results. LVII. Joint Planck LFI and HFI data processing

Akrami, Y. and Andersen, K. J. and Ashdown, M. and Baccigalupi, C. and Ballardini, M. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Basak, S. and Benabed, K. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Calabrese, E. and Casaponsa, B. and Chiang, H. C. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Combet, C. and Crill, B. P. and Cuttaia, F. and de Bernardis, P. and De Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Di Valentino, E. and Diego, J. M. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Dupac, X. and Eriksen, H. K. and Fernandez-Cobos, R. and Finelli, F. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frolov, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Gerbino, M. and Ghosh, T. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Handley, W. and Helou, G. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Huang, Z. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jones, W. C. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kiiveri, K. and Kim, J. and Kisner, T. S. and Krachmalnicoff, N. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Le Jeune, M. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Lilley, M. and Lindholm, V. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Marcos-Caballero, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Matarrese, S. and Mauri, N. and McEwen, J. D. and Meinhold, P. R. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Molinari, D. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Moss, A. and Natoli, P. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, D. and Pearson, T. J. and Perrotta, F. and Piacentini, F. and Polenta, G. and Rachen, J. P. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renzini, A. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Roudier, G. and Rubino-Martin, J. A. and Ruiz-Granados, B. and Salvati, L. and Savelainen, M. and Scott, D. and Sirignano, C. and Sirri, G. and Spencer, L. D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Svalheim, T. L. and Tauber, J. A. and Tavagnacco, D. and Tenti, M. and Terenzi, L. and Thommesen, H. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Trombetti, T. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Vittorio, N. and Wandelt, B. D. and Wehus, I. K. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2020) Planck intermediate results. LVII. Joint Planck LFI and HFI data processing. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 643 . Art. No. A42. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038073.

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We present the NPIPE processing pipeline, which produces calibrated frequency maps in temperature and polarization from data from the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and High Frequency Instrument (HFI) using high-performance computers. NPIPE represents a natural evolution of previous Planck analysis efforts, and combines some of the most powerful features of the separate LFI and HFI analysis pipelines. For example, following the LFI 2018 processing procedure, NPIPE uses foreground polarization priors during the calibration stage in order to break scanning-induced degeneracies. Similarly, NPIPE employs the HFI 2018 time-domain processing methodology to correct for bandpass mismatch at all frequencies. In addition, NPIPE introduces several improvements, including, but not limited to: inclusion of the 8% of data collected during repointing manoeuvres; smoothing of the LFI reference load data streams; in-flight estimation of detector polarization parameters; and construction of maximally independent detector-set split maps. For component-separation purposes, important improvements include: maps that retain the CMB Solar dipole, allowing for high-precision relative calibration in higher-level analyses; well-defined single-detector maps, allowing for robust CO extraction; and HFI temperature maps between 217 and 857 GHz that are binned into 0′.9 pixels (N_(side) = 4096), ensuring that the full angular information in the data is represented in the maps even at the highest Planck resolutions. The net effect of these improvements is lower levels of noise and systematics in both frequency and component maps at essentially all angular scales, as well as notably improved internal consistency between the various frequency channels. Based on the NPIPE maps, we present the first estimate of the Solar dipole determined through component separation across all nine Planck frequencies. The amplitude is (3366.6 ± 2.7) μK, consistent with, albeit slightly higher than, earlier estimates. From the large-scale polarization data, we derive an updated estimate of the optical depth of reionization of τ = 0.051 ± 0.006, which appears robust with respect to data and sky cuts. There are 600 complete signal, noise and systematics simulations of the full-frequency and detector-set maps. As a Planck first, these simulations include full time-domain processing of the beam-convolved CMB anisotropies. The release of NPIPE maps and simulations is accompanied with a complete suite of raw and processed time-ordered data and the software, scripts, auxiliary data, and parameter files needed to improve further on the analysis and to run matching simulations.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Akrami, Y.0000-0002-2407-7956
Baccigalupi, C.0000-0002-8211-1630
Barreiro, R. B.0000-0002-6139-4272
Bond, J. R.0000-0003-2358-9949
Burigana, C.0000-0002-3005-5796
Crill, B. P.0000-0002-4650-8518
de Bernardis, P.0000-0001-6547-6446
De Rosa, A.0000-0001-5668-6863
de Zotti, G.0000-0003-2868-2595
Diego, J. M.0000-0001-9065-3926
Doré, O.0000-0002-5009-7563
Eriksen, H. K.0000-0003-2332-5281
Fernandez-Cobos, R.0000-0001-6185-7903
Finelli, F.0000-0002-6694-3269
Franceschi, E.0000-0002-0585-6591
Galeotta, S.0000-0002-3748-5115
Górski, K. M.0000-0003-2933-8630
Helou, G.0000-0003-3367-3415
Hildebrandt, S. R.0000-0003-0220-0009
Hivon, E.0000-0003-1880-2733
Huang, Z.0000-0003-0592-028X
Keihänen, E.0000-0003-1804-7715
Kunz, M.0000-0003-1676-6126
Kurki-Suonio, H.0000-0002-4618-3063
Maino, D.0000-0002-4761-1242
Martin, P. G.0000-0002-5236-3896
McEwen, J. D.0000-0002-5852-8890
Pearson, T. J.0000-0001-5213-6231
Piacentini, F.0000-0002-5444-9327
Polenta, G.0000-0003-4067-9196
Renzini, A.0000-0002-7093-7355
Rocha, G.0000-0002-4150-8076
Roudier, G.0000-0002-7402-7797
Rubino-Martin, J. A.0000-0001-5289-3021
Scott, D.0000-0002-6878-9840
Tenti, M.0000-0002-4254-5901
Valiviita, J.0000-0001-6225-3693
Wehus, I. K.0000-0003-3821-7275
Zacchei, A.0000-0003-0396-1192
Additional Information:© 2020 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 2 April 2020; Accepted 1 July 2020; Published online 11 November 2020. Planck ( is a project of the European Space Agency (ESA) with instruments provided by two scientific consortia funded by ESA member states and led by Principal Investigators from France and Italy, telescope reflectors provided through a collaboration between ESA and a scientific consortium led and funded by Denmark, and additional contributions from NASA (USA). The Planck Collaboration acknowledges the support of: ESA; CNES, and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MINECO, JA, and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF, and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); ERC and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, indicating which technical or scientific activities they have been involved in, can be found at This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant numbers 776282, 772253 and 819478. This research would not have been possible without the resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a US Department of Energy Office of Science User Facility operated under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
Spanish Supercomputing Network (RES)UNSPECIFIED
Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation (Tekes)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC)UNSPECIFIED
Deutschen Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck GesellschaftUNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SER)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss Space Office (SSO)UNSPECIFIED
Research Council of NorwayUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES)UNSPECIFIED
Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)776282
European Research Council (ERC)772253
European Research Council (ERC)819478
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Subject Keywords:cosmic background radiation – cosmology: observations – cosmological parameters – Galaxy: general – methods: data analysis
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201111-122556506
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Planck intermediate results - LVII. Joint Planck LFI and HFI data processing. Planck Collaboration, Y. Akrami, et. al., A&A, 643 (2020) A42; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106615
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:11 Nov 2020 22:38
Last Modified:11 Jan 2022 22:54

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