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Wavefront sensing and control in space-based coronagraph instruments using Zernike’s phase-contrast method

Ruane, Garreth and Wallace, J. Kent and Steeves, John and Prada, Camilo Mejia and Seo, Byoung-Joon and Bendek, Eduardo and Coker, Carl and Chen, Pin and Crill, Brendan and Jewell, Jeff and Kern, Brian and Marx, David and Poon, Phillip K. and Redding, David and Riggs, A. J. Eldorado and Siegler, Nicholas and Zimmer, Robert (2020) Wavefront sensing and control in space-based coronagraph instruments using Zernike’s phase-contrast method. Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, 6 (4). Art. No. 045005. ISSN 2329-4124. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201117-100810486

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Abstract

Future space telescopes with coronagraph instruments will use a wavefront sensor (WFS) to measure and correct for phase errors and stabilize the stellar intensity in high-contrast images. The HabEx and LUVOIR mission concepts baseline a Zernike wavefront sensor (ZWFS), which uses Zernike’s phase contrast method to convert phase in the pupil into intensity at the WFS detector. In preparation for these potential future missions, we experimentally demonstrate a ZWFS in a coronagraph instrument on the Decadal Survey Testbed in the High Contrast Imaging Testbed facility at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We validate that the ZWFS can measure low- and mid-spatial frequency aberrations up to the control limit of the deformable mirror (DM), with surface height sensitivity as small as 1 pm, using a configuration similar to the HabEx and LUVOIR concepts. Furthermore, we demonstrate closed-loop control, resolving an individual DM actuator, with residuals consistent with theoretical models. In addition, we predict the expected performance of a ZWFS on future space telescopes using natural starlight from a variety of spectral types. The most challenging scenarios require ∼1  h of integration time to achieve picometer sensitivity. This timescale may be drastically reduced by using internal or external laser sources for sensing purposes. The experimental results and theoretical predictions presented here advance the WFS technology in the context of the next generation of space telescopes with coronagraph instruments.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1117/1.jatis.6.4.045005DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2010.10541arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Ruane, Garreth0000-0003-4769-1665
Wallace, J. Kent0000-0001-5299-6899
Steeves, John0000-0002-2949-9314
Bendek, Eduardo0000-0002-9408-8925
Coker, Carl0000-0002-9954-7887
Crill, Brendan0000-0002-4650-8518
Riggs, A. J. Eldorado0000-0002-0863-6228
Additional Information:© 2020 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Paper 20098 received Jul. 9, 2020; accepted for publication Oct. 19, 2020; published online Nov. 9, 2020. We thank Stuart Shaklan and Stefan Martin for useful discussions. Keith Patterson led the design and commissioning of the DST. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:wavefront sensing; coronagraph; high contrast imaging; exoplanets
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201117-100810486
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201117-100810486
Official Citation:Garreth J. Ruane, James Kent Wallace, John B. Steeves, Camilo Mejia Prada, Byoung-Joon Seo, Eduardo A. Bendek, Carl T. Coker, Pin Chen, Brendan P. Crill, Jeff B. Jewell, Brian D. Kern, David S. Marx, Phillip K. Poon, David C. Redding, A.J. Eldorado Riggs, Nicholas Siegler, and Robert P. Zimmer "Wavefront sensing and control in space-based coronagraph instruments using Zernike’s phase-contrast method," Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems 6(4), 045005 (9 November 2020). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JATIS.6.4.045005
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106697
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:17 Nov 2020 18:23
Last Modified:17 Nov 2020 18:23

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