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Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria shift from mutualistic to virulent Lrp‐dependent phenotypes within the receptacles of Steinernema carpocapsae insect‐infective stage nematodes

Cao, Mengyi and Goodrich-Blair, Heidi (2020) Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria shift from mutualistic to virulent Lrp‐dependent phenotypes within the receptacles of Steinernema carpocapsae insect‐infective stage nematodes. Environmental Microbiology, 22 (12). pp. 5433-5449. ISSN 1462-2912. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201120-074102902

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Abstract

Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria are mutualists of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and pathogens of insects. Xenorhabdus nematophila exhibits phenotypic variation between insect virulence (V) and the mutualistic (M) support of nematode reproduction and colonization initiation in the infective juvenile (IJ) stage nematode that carries X. nematophila between insect hosts. The V and M phenotypes occur reciprocally depending on levels of the transcription factor Lrp: high‐Lrp expressors are M+V− while low‐Lrp expressors are V+M−. We report here that variable (wild type) or fixed high‐Lrp expressors also are optimized, relative to low‐ or no‐Lrp expressors, for colonization of additional nematode stages: juvenile, adult and pre‐transmission infective juvenile (IJ). In contrast, we found that after the bacterial population had undergone outgrowth in mature IJs, the advantage for colonization shifted to low‐Lrp expressors: fixed low‐Lrp expressors (M−V+) and wild type (M+V+) exhibited higher average bacterial CFU per IJ than did high‐Lrp (M+V−) or no‐Lrp (M−V−) strains. Further, the bacterial population becomes increasingly low‐Lrp expressing, based on expression of an Lrp‐dependent fluorescent reporter, as IJs age. These data support a model that virulent X. nematophila have a selective advantage and accumulate in aging IJs in advance of exposure to insect hosts in which this phenotype is necessary.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15286DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Cao, Mengyi0000-0002-3117-3401
Goodrich-Blair, Heidi0000-0003-1934-2636
Additional Information:© 2020 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Issue Online: 20 December 2020; Version of Record online: 03 November 2020; Accepted manuscript online: 19 October 2020; Manuscript accepted: 18 October 2020; Manuscript revised: 03 October 2020; Manuscript received: 15 July 2020. This work was funded by an NSF grant to HGB (IOS – 1353674) and by funds from the University of Tennessee‐Knoxville. Additionally, MC was supported by a UW‐Madison Louis and Elsa Thomsen Wisconsin Distinguished Graduate Fellowship and a Department of Bacteriology Michael Foster Predoctoral Fellowship. The authors thank Dr. Kristen Murfin for training MC in nematode sample preparation and identification of X. nematophila colonization stages.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFIOS-1353674
University of TennesseeUNSPECIFIED
University of Wisconsin-MadisonUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201120-074102902
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201120-074102902
Official Citation:Cao, M. and Goodrich‐Blair, H. (2020), Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria shift from mutualistic to virulent Lrp‐dependent phenotypes within the receptacles of Steinernema carpocapsae insect‐infective stage nematodes. Environ Microbiol, 22: 5433-5449. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15286
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106751
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Nov 2020 16:34
Last Modified:21 Dec 2020 18:29

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