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A Biofuel-Cell-Based Energy Harvester With 86% Peak Efficiency and 0.25-V Minimum Input Voltage Using Source-Adaptive MPPT

Talkhooncheh, Arian Hashemi and Yu, You and Agarwal, Abhinav and Kuo, William Wei-Ting and Chen, Kuan-Chang and Wang, Minwo and Hoskuldsdottir, Gudrun and Gao, Wei and Emami, Azita (2021) A Biofuel-Cell-Based Energy Harvester With 86% Peak Efficiency and 0.25-V Minimum Input Voltage Using Source-Adaptive MPPT. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 56 (3). pp. 715-728. ISSN 0018-9200. doi:10.1109/jssc.2020.3035491.

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This article presents an efficient cold-starting energy harvester system, fabricated in 65-nm CMOS. The proposed harvester uses no external electrical components and is compatible with biofuel-cell (BFC) voltage and power ranges. A power-efficient system architecture is proposed to keep the internal circuitry operating at 0.4 V while regulating the output voltage at 1 V using switched-capacitor dc–dc converters and a hysteretic controller. A startup enhancement block is presented to facilitate cold startup with any arbitrary input voltage. A real-time on-chip 2-D maximum power point tracking with source degradation tracing is also implemented to maintain power efficiency maximized over time. The system performs cold startup with a minimum input voltage of 0.39 V and continues its operation if the input voltage degrades to as low as 0.25 V. Peak power efficiency of 86% is achieved at 0.39 V of input voltage and 1.34 μW of output power with 220 nW of average power consumption of the chip. The end-to-end power efficiency is kept above 70% for a wide range of loading powers from 1 to 12 μW. The chip is integrated with a pair of lactate BFC electrodes with 2 mm of diameter on a prototype-printed circuit board (PCB). Integrated operation of the chip with the electrodes and a lactate solution is demonstrated.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ItemConference Paper
Talkhooncheh, Arian Hashemi0000-0001-8946-5047
Yu, You0000-0001-7059-7023
Chen, Kuan-Chang0000-0003-2968-4656
Gao, Wei0000-0002-8503-4562
Emami, Azita0000-0002-6945-9958
Additional Information:© 2020 IEEE. Manuscript received June 4, 2020; revised August 14, 2020 and September 28, 2020; accepted October 22, 2020. Date of publication November 17, 2020; date of current version February 24, 2021. This article was approved by Associate Editor Qun Jane Gu. The authors would like to thank the contributions of S. Sharma, S. Shah, and F. Aghlmand from Mixed-mode Integrated Circuits and Systems (MICS) Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and Caltech High-speed Integrated Circuits (CHIC) Laboratory, Caltech, members for their help with prototype printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication; and Muse Semiconductor for chip fabrication.
Group:Heritage Medical Research Institute
Subject Keywords:Biofuel-cell (BFC), CMOS, cold startup, dc–dc voltage converter, energy harvester, health monitoring, power management, source-adaptive maximum power point tracking (MPPT), wearable sensor
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201120-095702860
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:A. H. Talkhooncheh et al., "A Biofuel-Cell-Based Energy Harvester With 86% Peak Efficiency and 0.25-V Minimum Input Voltage Using Source-Adaptive MPPT," in IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 715-728, March 2021, doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2020.3035491
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106755
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Nov 2020 18:16
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:56

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