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First Cosmology Results using Supernovae Ia from the Dark Energy Survey: Survey Overview, Performance, and Supernova Spectroscopy

Smith, M. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Sullivan, M. and Möller, A. and Nichol, R. C. and Thomas, R. C. and Kim, A. G. and Sako, M. and Castander, F. J. and Filippenko, A. V. and Foley, R. J. and Galbany, L. and González-Gaitán, S. and Kasai, E. and Kirshner, R. P. and Lidman, C. and Scolnic, D. and Brout, D. and Davis, T. M. and Gupta, R. R. and Hinton, S. R. and Kessler, R. and Lasker, J. and Macaulay, E. and Wolf, R. C. and Zhang, B. and Asorey, J. and Avelino, A. and Bassett, B. A. and Calcino, J. and Carollo, D. and Casas, R. and Challis, P. and Childress, M. and Clocchiatti, A. and Crawford, S. and Frohmaier, C. and Glazebrook, K. and Goldstein, D. A. and Graham, M. L. and Hoormann, J. K. and Kuehn, K. and Lewis, G. F. and Mandel, K. S. and Morganson, E. and Muthukrishna, D. and Nugent, P. and Pan, Y.-C. and Pursiainen, M. and Sharp, R. and Sommer, N. E. and Swann, E. and Thomas, B. P. and Tucker, B. E. and Uddin, S. A. and Wiseman, P. and Zheng, W. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Annis, J. and Avila, S. and Bechtol, K. and Bernstein, G. M. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Burke, D. L. and Carnero Rosell, A. and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Cunha, C. E. and da Costa, L. N. and Davis, C. and De Vicente, J. and Diehl, H. T. and Eifler, T. F. and Estrada, J. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Hartley, W. G. and Hollowood, D. L. and Honscheid, K. and Hoyle, B. and James, D. J. and Johnson, M. W. G. and Johnson, M. D. and Kuropatkin, N. and Li, T. S. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and March, M. and Marshall, J. L. and Martini, P. and Menanteau, F. and Miller, C. J. and Miquel, R. and Neilsen, E. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Plazas, A. A. and Romer, A. K. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schubnell, M. and Serrano, S. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Soares-Santos, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Tarle, G. and Tucker, D. L. and Wester, W. (2020) First Cosmology Results using Supernovae Ia from the Dark Energy Survey: Survey Overview, Performance, and Supernova Spectroscopy. Astronomical Journal, 160 (6). Art. No. 267. ISSN 1538-3881. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201123-093422084

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Abstract

We present details on the observing strategy, data-processing techniques, and spectroscopic targeting algorithms for the first three years of operation for the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN). This five-year program using the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4 m Blanco telescope in Chile was designed to discover and follow supernovae (SNe) Ia over a wide redshift range (0.05 < z < 1.2) to measure the equation-of-state parameter of dark energy. We describe the SN program in full: strategy, observations, data reduction, spectroscopic follow-up observations, and classification. From three seasons of data, we have discovered 12,015 likely SNe, 308 of which have been spectroscopically confirmed, including 251 SNe Ia over a redshift range of 0.017 < z < 0.85. We determine the effective spectroscopic selection function for our sample and use it to investigate the redshift-dependent bias on the distance moduli of SNe Ia we have classified. The data presented here are used for the first cosmology analysis by DES-SN ("DES-SN3YR"), the results of which are given in Dark Energy Survey Collaboration et al. The 489 spectra that are used to define the DES-SN3YR sample are publicly available at https://des.ncsa.illinois.edu/releases/sn.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/abc01bDOIArticle
https://des.ncsa.illinois.edu/releases/snRelated ItemData
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Smith, M.0000-0002-3321-1432
Sullivan, M.0000-0001-9053-4820
Möller, A.0000-0001-8211-8608
Nichol, R. C.0000-0003-0939-6518
Sako, M.0000-0003-2764-7093
Castander, F. J.0000-0001-7316-4573
Filippenko, A. V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Galbany, L.0000-0002-1296-6887
González-Gaitán, S.0000-0001-9541-0317
Kirshner, R. P.0000-0002-1966-3942
Lidman, C.0000-0003-1731-0497
Scolnic, D.0000-0002-4934-5849
Brout, D.0000-0001-5201-8374
Davis, T. M.0000-0002-4213-8783
Kessler, R.0000-0003-3221-0419
Lasker, J.0000-0003-2999-4873
Asorey, J.0000-0002-6211-499X
Bassett, B. A.0000-0001-7700-1069
Calcino, J.0000-0001-7764-3627
Carollo, D.0000-0003-4710-132X
Childress, M.0000-0001-9809-9958
Clocchiatti, A.0000-0003-3068-4258
Frohmaier, C.0000-0001-9553-4723
Glazebrook, K.0000-0002-3254-9044
Goldstein, D. A.0000-0003-3461-8661
Graham, M. L.0000-0002-9154-3136
Hoormann, J. K.0000-0002-6356-4669
Lewis, G. F.0000-0003-3081-9319
Mandel, K. S.0000-0001-9846-4417
Morganson, E.0000-0001-7180-109X
Muthukrishna, D.0000-0002-5788-9280
Nugent, P.0000-0002-3389-0586
Pursiainen, M.0000-0003-4663-4300
Swann, E.0000-0001-6117-1100
Annis, J.0000-0002-0609-3987
Avila, S.0000-0001-5043-3662
Bechtol, K.0000-0001-8156-0429
Bernstein, G. M.0000-0002-8613-8259
Bertin, E.0000-0002-3602-3664
Brooks, D.0000-0002-8458-5047
Carnero Rosell, A.0000-0003-3044-5150
Carrasco Kind, M.0000-0002-4802-3194
Carretero, J.0000-0002-3130-0204
De Vicente, J.0000-0001-8318-6813
Diehl, H. T.0000-0002-8357-7467
Eifler, T. F.0000-0002-1894-3301
Frieman, J.0000-0003-4079-3263
García-Bellido, J.0000-0002-9370-8360
Gaztanaga, E.0000-0001-9632-0815
Gerdes, D. W.0000-0001-6942-2736
Gruen, D.0000-0003-3270-7644
Gruendl, R. A.0000-0002-4588-6517
Gschwend, J.0000-0003-3023-8362
Gutierrez, G.0000-0003-0825-0517
Hollowood, D. L.0000-0002-9369-4157
Honscheid, K.0000-0002-6550-2023
James, D. J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Johnson, M. D.0000-0002-4120-3029
Kuropatkin, N.0000-0003-2511-0946
Martini, P.0000-0002-4279-4182
Menanteau, F.0000-0002-1372-2534
Miquel, R.0000-0002-6610-4836
Neilsen, E.0000-0001-6975-9056
Ogando, R. L. C.0000-0003-2120-1154
Plazas, A. A.0000-0002-2598-0514
Romer, A. K.0000-0002-9328-879X
Sanchez, E.0000-0002-9646-8198
Schubnell, M.0000-0001-9504-2059
Sevilla-Noarbe, I.0000-0002-1831-1953
Soares-Santos, M.0000-0001-6082-8529
Sobreira, F.0000-0002-7822-0658
Suchyta, E.0000-0002-7047-9358
Tarle, G.0000-0003-1704-0781
Tucker, D. L.0000-0001-7211-5729
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 July 28; revised 2020 October 7; accepted 2020 October 10; published 2020 November 18. This paper has gone through internal review by the DES collaboration. Based in part on data acquired through the Australian Astronomical Observatory under program ATAC A/2013B/12. We acknowledge the traditional owners of the land on which the AAT stands, the Gamilaraay people, and pay our respects to elders past and present. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil). Observations with Gemini were obtained under NOAO programs 2013A-0373 and 2015B-0197, corresponding to GN-2013B-Q-55, GS-2013B-Q-45, GS-2015B-Q-7, GN-2015B-Q-10, as well as GS-2015B-Q-8 under a Chilean program. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma. Observations with GTC were made under programs GTC77-13B, GTC70-14B, and GTC101-15B. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Observations with Keck were made under programs U063-2013B, U021-2014B, U048-2015B, and U038-2016A. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, partially through program CN2015B-89. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona, under programs 2014c-SAO-4, 2015a-SAO-12, 2015c-SAO-21. Some of the observations reported in this paper were obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) under programs 2013-1-RSA_OTH-023, 2013-2-RSA_OTH-018, 2014-1-RSA_OTH-016, 2014-2-SCI-070, 2015-1-SCI-063, and 2015-2-SCI-061. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 093.A-0749(A), 094.A-0310(B), 095.A-0316(A), 096.A-0536(A), 095.D-0797(A). Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC) do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). SOAR observations obtained under program 2014B-0205. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. The Southampton group acknowledges support from EU-FP7/ERC grant [615929]. MS acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union?s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 759194—USNAC). The Penn group was supported by DOE grant DE-FOA-0001358 and NSF grant AST-1517742. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. A.V.F.'s group at U.C. Berkeley is grateful for financial assistance from NSF grant AST-1211916, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, Gary and Cynthia Bengier, the TABASGO Foundation, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science. The UCSC team is supported in part by NASA grants 14-WPS14-0048, NNG16PJ34G, NNG17PX03C, NSF grants AST-1518052 and AST-1815935, the Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and by fellowships from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation to R.J.F. SGG acknowledges support by FCT under Project CRISP PTDC/FIS-AST-31546 and UIDB/00099/2020. L.G. was funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 839090. This work has been partially supported by the Spanish grant PGC2018-095317-B-C21 within the European Funds for Regional Development (FEDER). Support for AC was provided by ANID, through the Millennium Science Initiative grant ICN12_009 (MAS) and by grant Basal CATA PFB 06/09. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne National Laboratory, the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas-Madrid, the University of Chicago, University College London, the DES-Brazil Consortium, the University of Edinburgh, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC), the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, the University of Michigan, NFS's NOIRLab, the University of Nottingham, The Ohio State University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, the University of Sussex, Texas A&M University, and the OzDES Membership Consortium. Based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory at NSF?s NOIRLab (NOIRLab Prop. ID 2012B-0001; PI: J. Frieman), which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The DES data management system is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers AST-1138766 and AST-1536171. The DES participants from Spanish institutions are partially supported by MICINN under grants ESP2017-89838, PGC2018-094773, PGC2018-102021, SEV-2016-0588, SEV-2016-0597, and MDM-2015-0509, some of which include ERDF funds from the European Union. IFAE is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) including ERC grant agreements 240672, 291329, and 306478. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) e-Universe (CNPq grant 465376/2014-2). Facilities: AAT (AAOmega) - , Blanco (DECam) - , Gemini:North (GMOS) - , Gemini:South (GMOS) - , GTC (OSIRIS) - , Keck:I (LRIS) - , Keck:II (DEIMOS) - , Magellan:Baade (LDSS2 imaging spectrograph) - , Magellan:Clay (LDSS2 imaging spectrograph) - Magellan II Landon Clay Telescope, MMT (Blue Channel spectrograph) - , NTT (EFOSC2) - , SALT (RSS) - , Shane (Kast Double spectrograph) - , SOAR - , VLT: Kueyen (X-Shooter). -
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
GoogleUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)615929
European Research Council (ERC)759194
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FOA-0001358
NSFAST-1517742
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
NSFAST-1211916
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Gary and Cynthia BengierUNSPECIFIED
TABASGO FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
NASA14-WPS14-0048
NASANNG16PJ34G
NASANNG17PX03C
NSFAST-1518052
NSFAST-1815935
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)CRISP PTDC/FIS-AST-31546
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UIDB/00099/2020
Marie Curie Fellowship839090
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)PGC2018-095317-B-C21
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)ICN12_009
Basal-CATAPFB 06/09
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
University of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignUNSPECIFIED
University of ChicagoUNSPECIFIED
Ohio State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Texas A&M UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Argonne National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
University of California, Santa CruzUNSPECIFIED
University of CambridgeUNSPECIFIED
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y TecnológicasUNSPECIFIED
University College LondonUNSPECIFIED
DES-Brazil ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
University of EdinburghUNSPECIFIED
ETH ZurichUNSPECIFIED
Fermi National Accelerator LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Institut de Física d'Altes EnergiesUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Ludwig-Maximilians Universität MünchenUNSPECIFIED
Excellence Cluster UniverseUNSPECIFIED
University of MichiganUNSPECIFIED
University of NottinghamUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
University of PortsmouthUNSPECIFIED
Stanford Linear Accelerator CenterUNSPECIFIED
Stanford UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of SussexUNSPECIFIED
OzDES Membership ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1138766
NSFAST-1536171
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)ESP2017-89838-C3-1-R
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PGC2018-094773
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PGC2018-102021
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0597
Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia María de MaeztuMDM-2015-0509
European Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)240672
European Research Council (ERC)291329
European Research Council (ERC)306478
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)465376/2014-2
Subject Keywords:Type Ia supernovae ; Supernovae ; Cosmology ; Cosmological parameters ; Observational cosmology ; Sky surveys
Issue or Number:6
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Type Ia supernovae (1728); Supernovae (1668); Cosmology (343); Cosmological parameters (339); Observational cosmology (1146); Sky surveys (1464)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201123-093422084
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201123-093422084
Official Citation:M. Smith et al 2020 AJ 160 267
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106778
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:23 Nov 2020 19:27
Last Modified:23 Nov 2020 19:27

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