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Even More Rapidly Rotating Pre-main-sequence M Dwarfs with Highly Structured Light Curves: An Initial Survey in the Lower Centaurus-Crux and Upper Centaurus-Lupus Associations

Stauffer, John and Rebull, Luisa M. and Jardine, Moira and Cameron, Andrew Collier and Cody, Ann Marie and Hillenbrand, Lynne A. and Barrado, David and Kruse, Ethan and Powell, Brian P. (2021) Even More Rapidly Rotating Pre-main-sequence M Dwarfs with Highly Structured Light Curves: An Initial Survey in the Lower Centaurus-Crux and Upper Centaurus-Lupus Associations. Astronomical Journal, 161 (2). Art. No. 60. ISSN 1538-3881. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201203-151008360

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Abstract

Using K2, we recently discovered a new type of periodic photometric variability while analyzing the light curves of members of Upper Sco. The 23 exemplars of this new variability type are all mid-M dwarfs, with short rotation periods. Their phased light curves have one or more broad flux dips or multiple arcuate structures which are not explicable by photospheric spots or eclipses by solid bodies. Now, using Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite data, we have searched for this type of variability in the other major sections of Sco-Cen, Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL), and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC). We identify 28 stars with the same light curve morphologies. We find no obvious difference between the Upper Sco and the UCL/LCC representatives of this class in terms of their light curve morphologies, periods, or variability amplitudes. The physical mechanism behind this variability is unknown, but as a possible clue we show that the rapidly rotating mid-M dwarfs in UCL/LCC have slightly different colors from the slowly rotating M dwarfs—they either have a blue excess (hot spots?) or a red excess (warm dust?). One of the newly identified stars (TIC242407571) has a very striking light curve morphology. At about every 0.05 in phase are features that resemble icicles. The icicles arise because there is a second periodic system whose main feature is a broad flux dip. Using a toy model, we show that the observed light curve morphology results only if the ratio of the two periods and the flux-dip width are carefully arranged.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/abc7c6DOIArticle
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-3881/abc7c6PublisherArticle
http://arxiv.org/abs/2011.01839arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Stauffer, John0000-0003-3595-7382
Rebull, Luisa M.0000-0001-6381-515X
Jardine, Moira/0000-0002-1466-5236
Cameron, Andrew Collier0000-0002-8863-7828
Cody, Ann Marie0000-0002-3656-6706
Barrado, David0000-0002-5971-9242
Kruse, Ethan0000-0002-0493-1342
Additional Information:© 2021 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 September 15; revised 2020 November 2; accepted 2020 November 3; published 2021 January 11. Some of the data presented in this paper were obtained from MAST. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NNX09AF08G and by other grants and contracts. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This research has made use of NASA's Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Abstract Service, and of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. This research has made use of data products from 2MASS, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. The 2MASS data are served by the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This publication makes use of data products from WISE, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Facilities: TESS - , Exoplanet Archive - , IRSA - , 2MASS - , WISE. -
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANNX09AF08G
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Young star clusters ; M stars ; Stellar rotation
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Young star clusters (1833); M stars (985); Stellar rotation (1629)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201203-151008360
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201203-151008360
Official Citation:John Stauffer et al 2021 AJ 161 60
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106894
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Dec 2020 02:24
Last Modified:11 Jan 2021 23:07

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