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Fast Outflows in Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies Detected with Keck/NIRES

Finnerty, Luke and Larson, Kirsten and Soifer, B. T. and Armus, Lee and Matthews, Keith and Jun, Hyunsung D. and Moon, Dae-Sik and Melbourne, Jason and Gomez, Percy and Tsai, Chao-Wei and Díaz-Santos, Tanio and Eisenhardt, Peter and Cushing, Michael (2020) Fast Outflows in Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies Detected with Keck/NIRES. Astrophysical Journal, 905 (1). Art. No. 16. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abc3bf.

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We present rest-frame optical spectroscopic observations of 24 Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs) at redshifts 1.7–4.6 with KECK/NIRES. Our targets are selected, based on their extreme red colors, to be the highest-luminosity sources from the WISE infrared survey. In 20 sources with well-detected emission, we fit the key [O iii], Hβ, Hα, [N ii], and [S ii] diagnostic lines to constrain physical conditions. Of the 17 targets with a clear detection of the [O iii]λ5007 Å emission line, 15 display broad blueshifted and asymmetric line profiles, with widths ranging from 1000 to 8000 km s⁻¹ and blueshifts up to 3000 km s⁻¹. These kinematics provide strong evidence for the presence of massive ionized outflows of up to 8000 M_ ⊙ yr⁻¹, with a median of 150 M_ ⊙ yr⁻¹. As many as eight sources show optical emission line ratios consistent with vigorous star formation. Balmer-line star formation rates, uncorrected for reddening, range from 30 to 1300 M_ ⊙ yr⁻¹, with a median of 50 M_ ⊙ yr⁻¹. Estimates of the SFR from Spectral Energy Distribution fitting of mid- and far-infrared photometry suggest significantly higher values. We estimate the central black hole masses to be of order 10⁸⁻¹⁰ M_ ⊙, assuming the present-day M_(BH)-σ_★ relation. The bolometric luminosities and the estimated masses of the central black holes of these galaxies suggest that many of the active galactic nucleus-dominated Hot DOGs are accreting at or above their Eddington limit. The combination of ongoing star formation, massive outflows, and high Eddington ratios suggest Hot DOGs are a transitional phase in galaxy evolution.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Finnerty, Luke0000-0002-1392-0768
Larson, Kirsten0000-0003-3917-6460
Armus, Lee0000-0003-3498-2973
Jun, Hyunsung D.0000-0003-1470-5901
Moon, Dae-Sik0000-0003-4200-5064
Gomez, Percy0000-0003-0408-9850
Tsai, Chao-Wei0000-0002-9390-9672
Díaz-Santos, Tanio0000-0003-0699-6083
Cushing, Michael0000-0001-7780-3352
Additional Information:© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 August 7; revised 2020 October 12; accepted 2020 October 20; published 2020 December 8. We thank the anonymous reviewer for helpful suggestions that improved this paper. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We wish to acknowledge the critical importance of the current and recent Maunakea Observatories daycrew, technicians, telescope operators, computer support, and office staff employees, especially during the challenging times presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. Their expertise, ingenuity, and dedication is indispensable to the continued successful operation of these observatories. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. D. S. M. was supported in part by a Leading Edge Fund from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (project No. 30951) and a Discovery Grant (RGPIN-2019-06524) from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. D. S. M. is also grateful to the Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Toronto for its contribution to the NIRES H2RG detector. T. D.-S. acknowledges support from the CASSACA and CONICYT fund CAS-CONICYT Call 2018. C.-W. Tsai was supported by a grant from the NSFC (No. 11973051). This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1A6A3A04005158). The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Facility: Keck:II (NIRES). - Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for Innovation30951
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)RGPIN-2019-06524
Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
CAS South America Center for Astronomy (CASSACA)Call 2018
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)UNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China11973051
National Research Foundation of KoreaNRF-2017R1A6A3A04005158
Subject Keywords:Infrared galaxies ; High-redshift galaxies ; Active galaxies
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Infrared galaxies (790); High-redshift galaxies (734); Active galaxies (17)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201209-122138973
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:106980
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:09 Dec 2020 23:25
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:58

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