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Stimuli Responsive Shape Memory Microarchitectures

Elliott, Luizetta V. and Salzman, Erika E. and Greer, Julia R. (2021) Stimuli Responsive Shape Memory Microarchitectures. Advanced Functional Materials, 31 (9). Art. No. 2008380. ISSN 1616-301X. doi:10.1002/adfm.202008380.

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Shape memory polymers (SMPs) respond to heat by generating programmable movement in devices that require substantial deformation and operate at transient temperatures, including stents and embolization coils. To enable their use in small‐scale applications like retinal vasculature stenting, shape transformations must occur in SMPs with complex 3D geometries with nanoscale features. This work describes the synthesis and sculpting of a benzyl methacrylate‐based SMP into 3D structures with <800 nm characteristic critical dimensions via two photon lithography. Dynamic nanomechanical analysis of 8 µm‐diameter cylindrical pillars reveal the initiation of this SMP's glass transition at 60 °C. Shape memory programming of the characterized pillars as well as complex 3D architectures, including flowers with 500 nm thick petals and cubic lattices with 2.5 µm unit cells and overall dimensions of 4.5 µm × 4.5 µm × 10 µm, demonstrate an 86 +/− 4% characteristic shape recovery ratio. These results reveal a pathway toward SMP devices with nanoscale features and arbitrary 3D geometries changing shape in response to temperature.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Elliott, Luizetta V.0000-0002-6411-0239
Salzman, Erika E.0000-0002-2995-7864
Greer, Julia R.0000-0002-9675-1508
Additional Information:© 2020 Wiley‐VCH. Issue Online: 24 February 2021; Version of Record online: 08 December 2020; Manuscript received: 01 October 2020. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Chen Neuroscience Institute at Caltech and the JRG's Vannevar‐Bush Faculty Fellowship from the US Department of Defense. The authors also acknowledge Professor George R. Rossman for use of the Raman and FTIR spectrometers, as well as his assistance in these techniques. The authors would like to thank Daryl Yee for support in monomer synthesis and two photon lithography, Ottman Tertuliano for support in nanomechanical characterization and Alice Chang for assistance with GPC. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Group:Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for Neuroscience
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute for NeuroscienceUNSPECIFIED
Vannever Bush Faculty FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:dynamic mechanical analysis; functional 3D structures; shape memory polymers; stimuli‐responsive microarchitectures; two‐photon lithography
Issue or Number:9
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201209-163844443
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Elliott, L. V., Salzman, E. E., Greer, J. R., Stimuli Responsive Shape Memory Microarchitectures. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2021, 31, 2008380.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107002
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:10 Dec 2020 00:45
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:58

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