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Planck intermediate results. LV. Reliability and thermal properties of high-frequency sources in the Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

Akrami, Y. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Ballardini, M. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Basak, S. and Benabed, K. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Burigana, C. and Calabrese, E. and Carvalho, P. and Chiang, H. C. and Crill, B. P. and Cuttaia, F. and De Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J.-M. and Di Valentino, E. and Diego, J. M. and Dupac, X. and Dusini, S. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Fernandez-Cobos, R. and Finelli, F. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frolov, A. and Galeotta, S. and Ganga, K. and Gerbino, M. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gratton, S. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Handley, W. and Hansen, F. K. and Herranz, D. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Huang, Z. and Jones, W. C. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kim, J. and Kisner, T. S. and Krachmalnicoff, N. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Le Jeune, M. and Levrier, F. and Lilje, P. B. and Lindholm, V. and López-Caniego, M. and Ma, Y.-Z. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maggio, G. and Mandolesi, N. and Marcos-Caballero, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Matarrese, S. and Mauri, N. and McEwen, J. D. and Migliaccio, M. and Molinari, D. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Natoli, P. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Polenta, G. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renzi, A. and Rocha, G. and Roudier, G. and Ruiz-Granados, B. and Savelainen, M. and Scott, D. and Sirri, G. and Spencer, L. D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Tauber, J. A. and Tavagnacco, D. and Tenti, M. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Trombetti, T. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wehus, I. K. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. (2020) Planck intermediate results. LV. Reliability and thermal properties of high-frequency sources in the Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 644 . Art. No. A99. ISSN 0004-6361.

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We describe an extension of the most recent version of the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS2), produced using a new multi-band Bayesian Extraction and Estimation Package (BeeP). BeeP assumes that the compact sources present in PCCS2 at 857 GHz have a dust-like spectral energy distribution (SED), which leads to emission at both lower and higher frequencies, and adjusts the parameters of the source and its SED to fit the emission observed in Planck’s three highest frequency channels at 353, 545, and 857 GHz, as well as the IRIS map at 3000 GHz. In order to reduce confusion regarding diffuse cirrus emission, BeeP’s data model includes a description of the background emission surrounding each source, and it adjusts the confidence in the source parameter extraction based on the statistical properties of the spatial distribution of the background emission. BeeP produces the following three new sets of parameters for each source: (a) fits to a modified blackbody (MBB) thermal emission model of the source; (b) SED-independent source flux densities at each frequency considered; and (c) fits to an MBB model of the background in which the source is embedded. BeeP also calculates, for each source, a reliability parameter, which takes into account confusion due to the surrounding cirrus. This parameter can be used to extract sub-samples of high-frequency sources with statistically well-understood properties. We define a high-reliability subset (BeeP/base), containing 26 083 sources (54.1% of the total PCCS2 catalogue), the majority of which have no information on reliability in the PCCS2. We describe the characteristics of this specific high-quality subset of PCCS2 and its validation against other data sets, specifically for: the sub-sample of PCCS2 located in low-cirrus areas; the Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps; the Herschel GAMA15-field catalogue; and the temperature- and spectral-index-reconstructed dust maps obtained with Planck’s Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination method. The results of the BeeP extension of PCCS2, which are made publicly available via the Planck Legacy Archive, will enable the study of the thermal properties of well-defined samples of compact Galactic and extragalactic dusty sources.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Akrami, Y.0000-0002-2407-7956
Barreiro, R. B.0000-0002-6139-4272
Bond, J. R.0000-0003-2358-9949
Crill, B. P.0000-0002-4650-8518
De Rosa, A.0000-0001-5668-6863
de Zotti, G.0000-0003-2868-2595
Diego, J. M.0000-0001-9065-3926
Huang, Z.0000-0003-0592-028X
Martin, P. G.0000-0002-5236-3896
McEwen, J. D.0000-0002-5852-8890
Pettorino, V.0000-0002-4203-9320
Piacentini, F.0000-0002-5444-9327
Renzi, A.0000-0002-7093-7355
Rocha, G.0000-0002-4150-8076
Roudier, G.0000-0002-7402-7797
Scott, D.0000-0002-6878-9840
Additional Information:© ESO 2020. Received 26 September 2019 / Accepted 18 July 2020. Planck ( is a project of the European Space Agency (ESA) with instruments provided by two scientific consortia funded by ESA member states and led by Principal Investigators from France and Italy, telescope reflectors provided through a collaboration between ESA and a scientific consortium led and funded by Denmark, and additional contributions from NASA (USA). The Planck Collaboration acknowledges the support of: ESA; CNES and CNRS/INSU-IN2P3-INP (France); ASI, CNR, and INAF (Italy); NASA and DoE (USA); STFC and UKSA (UK); CSIC, MINECO, JA, and RES (Spain); Tekes, AoF and CSC (Finland); DLR and MPG (Germany); CSA (Canada); DTU Space (Denmark); SER/SSO (Switzerland); RCN (Norway); SFI (Ireland); FCT/MCTES (Portugal); and ERC and PRACE (EU). A description of the Planck Collaboration and a list of its members, indicating which technical or scientific activities they have been involved in, can be found at We acknowledge support from the ESTEC Faculty Research Project Programme.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut national des sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National du Patrimoine (INP)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
Junta de AndalucíaUNSPECIFIED
Red Española de Supercomputación (RES)UNSPECIFIED
Tekes (Finland)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss Space Office (SSO)UNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education and Research (Switzerland)UNSPECIFIED
Research Council of NorwayUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior (MCTES)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)UNSPECIFIED
Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:catalogs / cosmology: observations / submillimeter: general
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201218-095601617
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Planck intermediate results - LV. Reliability and thermal properties of high-frequency sources in the Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources Planck Collaboration, Y. Akrami, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, M. Ballardini, A. J. Banday, R. B. Barreiro, N. Bartolo, S. Basak, K. Benabed, J.-P. Bernard, M. Bersanelli, P. Bielewicz, J. R. Bond, J. Borrill, F. R. Bouchet, C. Burigana, E. Calabrese, P. Carvalho, H. C. Chiang, B. P. Crill, F. Cuttaia, A. de Rosa, G. de Zotti, J. Delabrouille, J.-M. Delouis, E. Di Valentino, J. M. Diego, X. Dupac, S. Dusini, G. Efstathiou, F. Elsner, T. A. Enßlin, H. K. Eriksen, R. Fernandez-Cobos, F. Finelli, A. A. Fraisse, E. Franceschi, A. Frolov, S. Galeotta, K. Ganga, M. Gerbino, J. González-Nuevo, K. M. Górski, S. Gratton, A. Gruppuso, J. E. Gudmundsson, W. Handley, F. K. Hansen, D. Herranz, E. Hivon, M. Hobson, Z. Huang, W. C. Jones, E. Keihänen, R. Keskitalo, J. Kim, T. S. Kisner, N. Krachmalnicoff, M. Kunz, H. Kurki-Suonio, J.-M. Lamarre, A. Lasenby, M. Lattanzi, C. R. Lawrence, M. Le Jeune, F. Levrier, P. B. Lilje, V. Lindholm, M. López-Caniego, Y.-Z. Ma, J. F. Macías-Pérez, G. Maggio, N. Mandolesi, A. Marcos-Caballero, M. Maris, P. G. Martin, E. Martínez-González, S. Matarrese, N. Mauri, J. D. McEwen, M. Migliaccio, D. Molinari, A. Moneti, L. Montier, G. Morgante, P. Natoli, D. Paoletti, B. Partridge, F. Perrotta, V. Pettorino, F. Piacentini, G. Polenta, J.-L. Puget, J. P. Rachen, M. Reinecke, M. Remazeilles, A. Renzi, G. Rocha, G. Roudier, B. Ruiz-Granados, M. Savelainen, D. Scott, G. Sirri, L. D. Spencer, A.-S. Suur-Uski, J. A. Tauber, D. Tavagnacco, M. Tenti, L. Toffolatti, M. Tomasi, T. Trombetti, J. Valiviita, B. Van Tent, P. Vielva, F. Villa, I. K. Wehus, A. Zacchei and A. Zonca A&A, 644 (2020) A99 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107193
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:18 Dec 2020 21:37
Last Modified:18 Dec 2020 21:37

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