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Effects of physiological deficits in pineal melatonin on Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Dearing, Carley G. and Silva, Primal D. and Turner, Danielle N. and Fish, Betty A. and Contreras, Ethan O. and Schwarting, Zuri A. and Sena, Johnny and Schilkey, Faye D. and Bearer, Elaine L. and Wilkinson, Stephen D. and Rogelj, Snezna and Thompson, Stewart (2020) Effects of physiological deficits in pineal melatonin on Triple Negative Breast Cancer. . (Unpublished)

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Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is aggressive and treatment resistant. Evidence suggests that deficits in melatonin signaling increase TNBC risk: conditions that suppress melatonin increased incidence, low melatonin receptor expression correlates with worse prognosis, and high-dose melatonin can inhibit TNBC. Together this suggests that normalizing pineal melatonin could reduce TNBC incidence and/or mortality. The goal of this study was to determine whether small physiological deficits in melatonin alone, can increase risk for TNBC, and how ‘normal’ melatonin would be protective. Methods: The effect of melatonin treatment on 4t1 cells in vitro was measured using the MTT cell viability assay, and gene expression of breast cancer and melatonin signaling markers. The effect of pineal gland status on 4t1 cell allografts was tested in C3Sn mice (Mus Musculus) with either an intact pineal (control) or surgical removal of the pineal causing a ~50% deficit in plasma melatonin. Orthotopic tumors were assessed by histopathology and metastasis by strain specific qPCR against 4t1 cell and host gDNA. Results: Melatonin treatment induced significant changes in gene expression, with a significant reduction in derived PAM50 Risk of Recurrence score (ROR in Not treated = 65.5 ± 10.6 Mean SEM; Treated with 25pg/ml of melatonin 20.8 ± 8.3; P = 0.008), suggesting melatonin treatment would improve prognosis. A ~50% reduction in plasma melatonin increased orthotopic tumors, but this was non-significant, and had no effect on metastasis from tail vein allograft. Conclusions: Physiological deficits in melatonin do alter the oncogenic status of 4t1 tumor cells but this has only a limited effect on growth and metastasis in vivo. Lack of significance in orthotopic tumor formation may be due to small sample size, and it is possible that any protective effect of melatonin occurs earlier in tumor development than we have tested.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper Paper
Bearer, Elaine L.0000-0002-8390-8529
Thompson, Stewart0000-0003-4317-4572
Additional Information:The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY 4.0 International license. This version posted December 16, 2020. Author Contributions: CGD and PDS - in vivo experiments, analysis and paper preparation. DNT and SR - in vitro experiments, analysis and paper preparation. BAF, EOC and ZAS - in vivo experiments and analysis. JS and FDS - gDNA assay development and paper preparation. ELB - approach development and paper preparation. SDW - pinealectomy development. ST- conceived and led the study, conducted experiments and analysis, and led paper preparation. Research reported in this publication was supported by an Institutional Development Award (IDeA) from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under grant number P20GM103451: project subaward to ST, and support of primer design through the NM-INBRE Sequencing and Bioinformatics Core (SBC) at the NCGR.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Center for Genome ResourcesUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:4t1, triple negative breast cancer, melatonin, metastasis, pineal
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20201221-075637379
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Official Citation:Effects of physiological deficits in pineal melatonin on Triple Negative Breast Cancer. Carley G. Dearing, Primal D. Silva, Danielle N. Turner, Betty A. Fish, Ethan O. Contreras, Zuri A. Schwarting, Johnny Sena, Faye D. Schilkey, Elaine L. Bearer, Stephen D. Wilkinson, Snezna Rogelj, Stewart Thompson. bioRxiv 2020.12.16.423028; doi:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107226
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:21 Dec 2020 19:13
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 19:00

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