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TOI 122b and TOI 237b: Two Small Warm Planets Orbiting Inactive M Dwarfs Found by TESS

Waalkes, William C. and Berta-Thompson, Zachory K. and Collins, Karen A. and Feinstein, Adina D. and Tofflemire, Benjamin M. and Rojas-Ayala, Bárbara and Silverstein, Michele L. and Newton, Elisabeth and Ricker, George R. and Vanderspek, Roland and Latham, David W. and Seager, S. and Winn, Joshua N. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Christiansen, Jessie and Goeke, Robert F. and Levine, Alan M. and Osborn, H. P. and Rinehart, S. A. and Rose, Mark E. and Ting, Eric B. and Twicken, Joseph D. and Barkaoui, Khalid and Bean, Jacob L. and Briceño, César and Ciardi, David R. and Collins, Kevin I. and Conti, Dennis and Gan, Tianjun and Gillon, Michaël and Isopi, Giovanni and Jehin, Emmanuël and Jensen, Eric L. N. and Kielkopf, John F. and Law, Nicholas and Mallia, Franco and Mann, Andrew W. and Montet, Benjamin T. and Pozuelos, Francisco J. and Relles, Howard and Libby-Roberts, Jessica E. and Ziegler, Carl (2021) TOI 122b and TOI 237b: Two Small Warm Planets Orbiting Inactive M Dwarfs Found by TESS. Astronomical Journal, 161 (1). Art. No. 13. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/abc3b9.

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We report the discovery and validation of TOI 122b and TOI 237b, two warm planets transiting inactive M dwarfs observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Our analysis shows that TOI 122b has a radius of 2.72 ± 0.18 R_⊕ and receives 8.8 ± 1.0 times Earth's bolometric insolation, and TOI 237b has a radius of 1.44±0.12 R_⊕ and receives 3.7 ± 0.5 times Earth's insolation, straddling the 6.7 × Earth insolation that Mercury receives from the Sun. This makes these two of the cooler planets yet discovered by TESS, even on their 5.08 and 5.43 day orbits. Together, they span the small-planet radius valley, providing useful laboratories for exploring volatile evolution around M dwarfs. Their relatively nearby distances (62.23 ± 0.21 pc and 38.11 ± 0.23 pc, respectively) make them potentially feasible targets for future radial velocity follow-up and atmospheric characterization, although such observations may require substantial investments of time on large telescopes.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Waalkes, William C.0000-0002-8961-0352
Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.0000-0002-3321-4924
Collins, Karen A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Feinstein, Adina D.0000-0002-9464-8101
Tofflemire, Benjamin M.0000-0003-2053-0749
Rojas-Ayala, Bárbara0000-0002-0149-1302
Silverstein, Michele L.0000-0003-2565-7909
Newton, Elisabeth0000-0003-4150-841X
Ricker, George R.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, Roland0000-0001-6763-6562
Latham, David W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, Jon M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Christiansen, Jessie0000-0002-8035-4778
Goeke, Robert F.0000-0003-1748-5975
Levine, Alan M.0000-0001-8172-0453
Osborn, H. P.0000-0002-4047-4724
Rinehart, S. A.0000-0003-2519-3251
Rose, Mark E.0000-0003-4724-745X
Ting, Eric B.0000-0002-8219-9505
Twicken, Joseph D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Barkaoui, Khalid0000-0003-1464-9276
Bean, Jacob L.0000-0003-4733-6532
Briceño, César0000-0001-7124-4094
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Collins, Kevin I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Conti, Dennis0000-0003-2239-0567
Gan, Tianjun0000-0002-4503-9705
Gillon, Michaël0000-0003-1462-7739
Isopi, Giovanni0000-0002-8458-0588
Jehin, Emmanuël0000-0001-8923-488X
Jensen, Eric L. N.0000-0002-4625-7333
Kielkopf, John F.0000-0003-0497-2651
Law, Nicholas0000-0001-9380-6457
Mann, Andrew W.0000-0003-3654-1602
Montet, Benjamin T.0000-0001-7516-8308
Pozuelos, Francisco J.0000-0003-1572-7707
Libby-Roberts, Jessica E.0000-0002-2990-7613
Ziegler, Carl0000-0002-0619-7639
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 April 23; revised 2020 October 2; accepted 2020 October 20; published 2020 December 7. Funding for the TESS mission is provided by NASA's Science Mission directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS Alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the ExoFOP-TESS website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under grant No. (DGE-1650115) and (DGE-1746045). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. The research leading to these results has received funding from the ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions, financed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation. TRAPPIST is funded by the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique, FNRS) under the grant FRFC 2.5.594.09.F, with the participation of the Swiss National Science Fundation (SNF). M.G. and E.J. are F.R.S.-FNRS Senior Research Associates. B.R-A. acknowledges the funding support from FONDECYT through grant 11181295. Z.K.B.T. gratefully acknowledges support for this work from the TESS Guest Investigator program (Award #80NSSC18K1588) and the National Science Foundation CAREER program (Award ##1945633).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1650115
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1746045
Wallonia-Brussels FederationUNSPECIFIED
Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)FRFC 2.5.594.09.F
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)11181295
Subject Keywords:Mini Neptunes ; Exoplanets ; Transits ; M stars ; Super Earths
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Mini Neptunes (1063); Exoplanets (498); Transits (1711); M stars (985); Super Earths (1655)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210107-105301355
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:William C. Waalkes et al 2021 AJ 161 13
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107362
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:08 Jan 2021 19:29
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 19:02

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