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Photosynthesis-assisted remodeling of three-dimensional printed structures

Yu, Kunhao and Feng, Zhangzhengrong and Du, Haixu and Xin, An and Lee, Kyung Hoon and Li, Ketian and Su, Yipin and Wang, Qiming and Fang, Nicholas X. and Daraio, Chiara (2021) Photosynthesis-assisted remodeling of three-dimensional printed structures. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118 (3). Art. No. e2016524118. ISSN 0027-8424. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210112-081547169

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Abstract

The mechanical properties of engineering structures continuously weaken during service life because of material fatigue or degradation. By contrast, living organisms are able to strengthen their mechanical properties by regenerating parts of their structures. For example, plants strengthen their cell structures by transforming photosynthesis-produced glucose into stiff polysaccharides. In this work, we realize hybrid materials that use photosynthesis of embedded chloroplasts to remodel their microstructures. These materials can be used to three-dimensionally (3D)-print functional structures, which are endowed with matrix-strengthening and crack healing when exposed to white light. The mechanism relies on a 3D-printable polymer that allows for an additional cross-linking reaction with photosynthesis-produced glucose in the material bulk or on the interface. The remodeling behavior can be suspended by freezing chloroplasts, regulated by mechanical preloads, and reversed by environmental cues. This work opens the door for the design of hybrid synthetic-living materials, for applications such as smart composites, lightweight structures, and soft robotics.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2016524118DOIArticle
https://www.pnas.org/content/118/3/e2016524118PublisherArticle
https://www.pnas.org/content/suppl/2021/01/10/2016524118.DCSupplementalPublisherSupporting Information
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Yu, Kunhao0000-0003-2306-1175
Daraio, Chiara0000-0001-5296-4440
Additional Information:© 2021 National Academy of Sciences. Published under the PNAS license. Edited by Zhigang Suo, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, and approved December 10, 2020 (received for review August 4, 2020). Q.W. acknowledges the funding support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant FA9550-18-1-0192, program manager: Dr. Ming-Jen Pan) and the NSF (Grants CMMI-1762567 and CMMI-1943598). Data Availability: All study data are included in the article and SI Appendix. K.Y. and Z.F. contributed equally to this work. Author contributions: K.Y., Z.F., Q.W., N.X.F., and C.D. designed research; K.Y., Z.F., H.D., A.X., K.H.L., K.L., Y.S., and Q.W. performed research; K.Y., Z.F., H.D., A.X., K.H.L., K.L., Y.S., and Q.W. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; K.Y., Z.F., Q.W., N.X.F., and C.D. analyzed data; K.Y., Z.F., H.D., A.X., K.H.L., K.L., Y.S., Q.W., N.X.F., and C.D. wrote the paper; and Q.W. conceived the idea and supervised the team. Competing interest statement: The University of Southern California has filed a patent application related to the work described here. This article is a PNAS Direct Submission. This article contains supporting information online at https://www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.2016524118/-/DCSupplemental.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)FA9550-18-1-0192
NSFCMMI-1762567
NSFCMMI-1943598
Subject Keywords:3D printing; self-remodeling; self-strengthening; self-healing; photosynthesis
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210112-081547169
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210112-081547169
Official Citation:Photosynthesis-assisted remodeling of three-dimensional printed structures. Kunhao Yu, Zhangzhengrong Feng, Haixu Du, An Xin, Kyung Hoon Lee, Ketian Li, Yipin Su, Qiming Wang, Nicholas X. Fang, Chiara Daraio. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jan 2021, 118 (3) e2016524118; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2016524118
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107413
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:12 Jan 2021 16:34
Last Modified:12 Jan 2021 16:34

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