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Cratering in a Granular Bed due to an Impinging Supersonic Jet Penetrating a Planetary Atmosphere in the Continuum Regime

Balakrishnan, Kaushik and Bellan, Josette R. (2021) Cratering in a Granular Bed due to an Impinging Supersonic Jet Penetrating a Planetary Atmosphere in the Continuum Regime. In: AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics , Reston, VA, Art. No. 2021-0752. ISBN 9781624106095. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210112-105611902

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Abstract

High-fidelity three-dimensional numerical simulations are analyzed to investigate cratering on a granular bed of particles due to a supersonic multi-species fluid jet. In the simulations, the volume-averaged two-phase equations are solved with a multi-species Large-Eddy Simulation formulation for the fluid and a Kinetic-Theory-based model for the particle bed. The simulations vary according to the ratio of the jet-to-ambient fluid density (and pressure) and the jet density. The characteristics of the jets and crater are examined and they are found to be different according to the cross-sectional shape which is determined by the jet/ambient density ratio: a conical shape is observed when the ratio is close to unity, and a parabolic shape occurs when this ratio is large. The variation of the crater diameter time-wise evolution is evaluated, and the time-wise evolution of the ratio between the upper or lower crater depths and the crater diameter are also examined. The azimuthally averaged ejecta radial variation is inspected, and joint probability density functions elucidate the regions where gravity effects are important, and the Mach number regime in different parts of the flow.


Item Type:Book Section
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2021-0752DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Bellan, Josette R.0000-0001-9218-7017
Additional Information:© 2021 by California Institute of Technology. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission.
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
AIAA Paper2021-0752
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210112-105611902
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210112-105611902
Official Citation:Cratering in a Granular Bed due to an Impinging Supersonic Jet Penetrating a Planetary Atmosphere in the Continuum Regime. Kaushik Balakrishnan and Josette R. Bellan. AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum. January 2021; DOI: 10.2514/6.2021-0752
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107432
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:12 Jan 2021 19:20
Last Modified:12 Jan 2021 19:20

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