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A Galactic dust devil: far-infrared observations of the Tornado supernova remnant candidate

Chawner, H. and Howard, A. D. P. and Gomez, H. L. and Matsuura, M. and Priestley, F. and Barlow, M. J. and De Looze, I. and Papageorgiou, A. and Marsh, K. and Smith, M. W. L. and Noriega-Crespo, A. and Rho, J. and Dunne, L. (2020) A Galactic dust devil: far-infrared observations of the Tornado supernova remnant candidate. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 499 (4). pp. 5665-5678. ISSN 0035-8711.

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We present complicated dust structures within multiple regions of the candidate supernova remnant (SNR) the ‘Tornado’ (G357.7–0.1) using observations with Spitzer and Herschel. We use point process mapping, PPMAP, to investigate the distribution of dust in the Tornado at a resolution of 8 arcsec, compared to the native telescope beams of 5–36 arcsec. We find complex dust structures at multiple temperatures within both the head and the tail of the Tornado, ranging from 15 to 60 K. Cool dust in the head forms a shell, with some overlap with the radio emission, which envelopes warm dust at the X-ray peak. Akin to the terrestrial sandy whirlwinds known as ‘dust devils’, we find a large mass of dust contained within the Tornado. We derive a total dust mass for the Tornado head of 16.7 M_⊙⁠, assuming a dust absorption coefficient of κ₃₀₀ = 0.56 m² kg⁻¹⁠, which can be explained by interstellar material swept up by a SNR expanding in a dense region. The X-ray, infrared, and radio emission from the Tornado head indicate that this is a SNR. The origin of the tail is more unclear, although we propose that there is an X-ray binary embedded in the SNR, the outflow from which drives into the SNR shell. This interaction forms the helical tail structure in a similar manner to that of the SNR W50 and microquasar SS 433.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemHi-GAL Catalogs and Image Server ItemInfrared Science Archive ItemNational Radio Astronomy Observatory Science Data Archive ItemSuzaku Archive
Howard, A. D. P.0000-0002-3900-1313
Matsuura, M.0000-0002-5529-5593
Priestley, F.0000-0002-5858-6265
Barlow, M. J.0000-0002-3875-1171
De Looze, I.0000-0001-9419-6355
Papageorgiou, A.0000-0002-3039-9257
Marsh, K.0000-0003-0107-7803
Smith, M. W. L.0000-0002-3532-6970
Noriega-Crespo, A.0000-0002-6296-8960
Rho, J.0000-0003-3643-839X
Additional Information:© 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( Accepted 2020 September 16. Received 2020 September 16; in original form 2020 July 29. We thank the referee John Raymond for helpful and constructive referee report. We thank Bryan Gaensler for discussion on the nature of the Tornado and sharing X-ray XMM–Newton data. HC and HLG acknowledge support from the European Research Council (ERC) in the form of Consolidator Grant CosmicDust (ERC-2014-CoG-647939). MM acknowledges support from an STFC Ernest Rutherford fellowship (ST/L003597/1). FP acknowledges support from the STFC (ST/S00033X/1). MJB acknowledges support from the ERC in the form of Advanced Grant SNDUST (ERC-2015-AdG-694520). IDL gratefully acknowledges the support of the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO). ADPH gratefully acknowledges the support of a post-graduate scholarship from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. JR acknowledges support from NASA ADAP grant (80NSSC20K0449). This research has made use of data from the HiGAL Survey (2012hers.prop.2454M, 2011hers.prop.1899M, 2010hers.prop.1172M, and 2010hers.prop.358M) and ASTROPY,4 a community-developed core PYTHON package for astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018). This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. DATA AVAILABILITY. The Herschel and Spitzer data underlying this paper are available in Hi-GAL Catalogs and Image Server at and the Infrared Science Archive at The VLA data are available in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Science Data Archive at The Chandra and XMM–Newton data were provided by Bryan Gaensler by permission. The Suzaku data are available in the Suzaku Archive at HEASARC at
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)647939
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/L003597/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00033X/1
European Research Council (ERC)694520
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:ISM: supernova remnants, infrared: ISM, submillimetre: ISM
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210114-143038244
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:H Chawner, A D P Howard, H L Gomez, M Matsuura, F Priestley, M J Barlow, I De Looze, A Papageorgiou, K Marsh, M W L Smith, A Noriega-Crespo, J Rho, L Dunne, A Galactic dust devil: far-infrared observations of the Tornado supernova remnant candidate, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 499, Issue 4, December 2020, Pages 5665–5678,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107489
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:14 Jan 2021 23:39
Last Modified:14 Jan 2021 23:39

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