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SuperCam Instrument Suite on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests

Wiens, Roger C. and Maurice, Sylvestre and Robinson, Scott H. and Nelson, Anthony E. and Cais, Philippe and Bernardi, Pernelle and Newell, Raymond T. and Clegg, Sam and Sharma, Shiv K. and Storms, Steven and Deming, Jonathan and Beckman, Darrel and Ollila, Ann M. and Gasnault, Olivier and Anderson, Ryan B. and André, Yves and Michael Angel, S. and Arana, Gorka and Auden, Elizabeth and Beck, Pierre and Becker, Joseph and Benzerara, Karim and Bernard, Sylvain and Beyssac, Olivier and Borges, Louis and Bousquet, Bruno and Boyd, Kerry and Caffrey, Michael and Carlson, Jeffrey and Castro, Kepa and Celis, Jorden and Chide, Baptiste and Clark, Kevin and Cloutis, Edward and Cordoba, Elizabeth C. and Cousin, Agnes and Dale, Magdalena and DeFlores, Lauren and Delapp, Dorothea M. and Deleuze, Muriel and Dirmyer, Matthew and Donny, Christophe and Dromart, Gilles and Duran, M. George and Egan, Miles and Ervin, Joan and Fabre, Cécile and Fau, Amaury and Fischer, Woodward and Forni, Olivier and Fouchet, Thierry and Fresquez, Reuben and Frydenvang, Jens and Gasway, Denine and Gontijo, Ivair and Grotzinger, John and Jacob, Xavier and Jacquinod, Sophie and Johnson, Jeffrey R. and Klisiewicz, Roberta A. and Lake, James and Lanza, Nina and Laserna, Javier and Lasue, Jeremie and Le Mouélic, Stéphane and Legett, Carey and Leveille, Richard and Lewin, Eric and Lopez-Reyes, Guillermo and Lorenz, Ralph and Lorigny, Eric and Love, Steven P. and Lucero, Briana and Madariaga, Juan Manuel and Madsen, Morten Bo and Madsen, Soren and Mangold, Nicolas and Manrique, Jose Antonio and Martinez, J. P. and Martinez-Frias, Jesus and McCabe, Kevin P. and McConnochie, Timothy H. and McGlown, Justin M. and McLennan, Scott M. and Melikechi, Noureddine and Meslin, Pierre-Yves and Michel, John M. and Mimoun, David and Misra, Anupam and Montagnac, Gilles and Montmessin, Franck and Mousset, Valerie and Murdoch, Naomi and Newsom, Horton and Ott, Logan A. and Ousnamer, Zachary R. and Pares, Laurent and Parot, Yann and Pawluczyk, Rafal and Peterson, C. Glen and Pilleri, Paolo and Pinet, Patrick and Ponti, Gabriele and Poulet, Francois and Provost, Cheryl and Quertier, Benjamin and Quinn, Heather and Rapin, William and Reess, Jean-Michel and Regan, Amy H. and Reyes-Newell, Adriana L. and Romano, Philip J. and Royer, Clement and Rull, Fernando and Sandoval, Benigno and Sarrao, Joseph H. and Sautter, Violaine and Schoppers, Marcel J. and Schröder, Susanne and Seitz, Daniel and Shepherd, Terra and Sobron, Pablo and Dubois, Bruno and Sridhar, Vishnu and Toplis, Michael J. and Torre-Fdez, Imanol and Trettel, Ian A. and Underwood, Mark and Valdez, Andres and Valdez, Jacob and Venhaus, Dawn and Willis, Peter (2021) SuperCam Instrument Suite on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests. Space Science Reviews, 217 (1). Art. No. 4. ISSN 0038-6308. PMCID PMC7752893.

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The SuperCam instrument suite provides the Mars 2020 rover, Perseverance, with a number of versatile remote-sensing techniques that can be used at long distance as well as within the robotic-arm workspace. These include laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), remote time-resolved Raman and luminescence spectroscopies, and visible and infrared (VISIR; separately referred to as VIS and IR) reflectance spectroscopy. A remote micro-imager (RMI) provides high-resolution color context imaging, and a microphone can be used as a stand-alone tool for environmental studies or to determine physical properties of rocks and soils from shock waves of laser-produced plasmas. SuperCam is built in three parts: The mast unit (MU), consisting of the laser, telescope, RMI, IR spectrometer, and associated electronics, is described in a companion paper. The on-board calibration targets are described in another companion paper. Here we describe SuperCam’s body unit (BU) and testing of the integrated instrument. The BU, mounted inside the rover body, receives light from the MU via a 5.8 m optical fiber. The light is split into three wavelength bands by a demultiplexer, and is routed via fiber bundles to three optical spectrometers, two of which (UV and violet; 245–340 and 385–465 nm) are crossed Czerny-Turner reflection spectrometers, nearly identical to their counterparts on ChemCam. The third is a high-efficiency transmission spectrometer containing an optical intensifier capable of gating exposures to 100 ns or longer, with variable delay times relative to the laser pulse. This spectrometer covers 535–853 nm (105-7070 cm⁻¹ Raman shift relative to the 532 nm green laser beam) with 12 cm⁻¹ full-width at half-maximum peak resolution in the Raman fingerprint region. The BU electronics boards interface with the rover and control the instrument, returning data to the rover. Thermal systems maintain a warm temperature during cruise to Mars to avoid contamination on the optics, and cool the detectors during operations on Mars. Results obtained with the integrated instrument demonstrate its capabilities for LIBS, for which a library of 332 standards was developed. Examples of Raman and VISIR spectroscopy are shown, demonstrating clear mineral identification with both techniques. Luminescence spectra demonstrate the utility of having both spectral and temporal dimensions. Finally, RMI and microphone tests on the rover demonstrate the capabilities of these subsystems as well.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Wiens, Roger C.0000-0002-3409-7344
Clegg, Sam0000-0002-0338-0948
Gasnault, Olivier0000-0002-6979-9012
Anderson, Ryan B.0000-0003-4465-2871
Arana, Gorka0000-0001-7854-855X
Cloutis, Edward0000-0001-7301-0929
Cousin, Agnes0000-0001-7823-7794
Delapp, Dorothea M.0000-0002-2514-337X
Fabre, Cécile0000-0001-8627-4050
Fischer, Woodward0000-0002-8836-3054
Forni, Olivier0000-0001-6772-9689
Frydenvang, Jens0000-0001-9294-1227
Grotzinger, John0000-0001-9324-1257
Johnson, Jeffrey R.0000-0002-5586-4901
Lorenz, Ralph0000-0001-8528-4644
Madariaga, Juan Manuel0000-0002-1685-6335
Madsen, Morten Bo0000-0001-8909-5111
Mangold, Nicolas0000-0002-0022-0631
McLennan, Scott M.0000-0003-4259-7178
Meslin, Pierre-Yves0000-0002-0703-3951
Mimoun, David0000-0002-3427-2974
Newsom, Horton0000-0002-4358-8161
Pinet, Patrick0000-0002-1933-5631
Ponti, Gabriele0000-0003-0293-3608
Rapin, William0000-0003-4660-8006
Sautter, Violaine0000-0002-4263-7558
Schröder, Susanne0000-0003-1870-3663
Willis, Peter0000-0001-5394-1101
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit Received 16 May 2020; Accepted 27 November 2020; Published 21 December 2020. Data availability: Data presented in the Results section of this paper are being made available to the Planetary Data System Geosciences Node under Mars 2020/SuperCam. Code availability: Not applicable. Many people contributed to this project in addition to the co-authors, and we are most grateful for their support. This project was supported in the US by the NASA Mars Exploration Program, and in France by CNES, CNRS, and local universities. Support in Spain was provided by the Spanish Science Ministry. SuperCam benefitted from LANL laboratory-directed research and development funding which provided early prototypes of the new technologies incorporated in the SuperCam BU. J. Bell, A. Yingst, and K. Bennett are thanked for reviewing this manuscript; editorial support by K. Williford is also gratefully acknowledged. SDG. Was provided in the US by NASA’s Mars Exploration Program. Funding in France was provided by CNES and CNRS. Funding in Spain was provided by the Spanish Science Ministry. Some funding of data analyses at LANL was provided by Laboratory-Directed Research and Development funds. Contributions: All authors contributed to either the proposal or the development and testing of the SuperCam instrument as described in this paper. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest or competing interests. The Mars 2020 Mission: Edited by Kenneth A. Farley, Kenneth H. Williford and Kathryn M. Stack.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Perseverance rover; LIBS; Raman spectroscopy; Infrared spectroscopy; Microphone on Mars; SuperCam; Jezero crater; Mars
Issue or Number:1
PubMed Central ID:PMC7752893
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210119-133716640
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Wiens, R.C., Maurice, S., Robinson, S.H. et al. The SuperCam Instrument Suite on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests. Space Sci Rev 217, 4 (2021).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107547
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Jan 2021 22:27
Last Modified:19 Jan 2021 22:27

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