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Shock-wave viscosity measurement

Miller, Gregory H. and Ahrens, Thomas J. (1991) Shock-wave viscosity measurement. Reviews of Modern Physics, 63 (4). pp. 919-948. ISSN 0034-6861. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.63.919.

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The problem of measuring the viscosity of fluids under shock-loading conditions is discussed. The authors examine in detail the method of Sakharov et al. (1965) and Zaidel' (1967) for measuring shear viscosity from the decay of perturbations on a corrugated shock front. The relevance of initial conditions, finite shock amplitude, bulk viscosity, and the sensitivity of the measurements to the shock boundary conditions are discussed. The validity of the viscous perturbation approach is examined by numerically solving the second-order Navier-Stokes equations. These numerical experiments indicate that shock instabilities may occur even when the Kontorovich-D'yakov stability criteria are satisfied. The corrugated shock front induces mixing of the shocked sample. This mixing is particularly vigorous in viscous materials and may be responsible for the rapid rate of some shock-induced chemical reactions. The experimental results for water at 15 GPa are discussed, and several possibilities are considered to explain why the viscosity obtained by these experiments is so different from those obtained by other methods. Two possible reasons are favored: (1) the analytic method may be inappropriate because it ignores possible complications at the onset of the shock perturbations, and (2) the large effective viscosity determined by this method may reflect the existence of ice VII on the Rayleigh path of the Hugoniot. The latter interpretation reconciles the experimental results with estimates and measurements obtained by other means and is consistent with pressure-volume-temperature Hugoniot data and the phase diagram of H2O.

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Additional Information:© 1991 The American Physical Society. We are grateful to D.W. Schwendeman for his invaluable assistance with the mathematical analysis in Sec. V, and to R.F. Svendesen, Jr. for very helpful discussions regarding the formulation of boundary conditions. We also thank Professor D.J. Stevenson and Professor W.I. Newman for their thoughtful comments and suggestions. This study was supported under NSF Grant No. EAR-8916753, Contribution No. 4884, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:MILrmp91
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:10771
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:10 Jun 2008
Last Modified:08 Nov 2021 21:10

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