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The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: LP 714-47 b (TOI 442.01): populating the Neptune desert

Dreizler, S. and Crossfield, I. J. M. and Kossakowski, D. and Plavchan, P. and Jeffers, S. V. and Kemmer, J. and Luque, R. and Espinoza, N. and Pallé, E. and Stassun, K. and Matthews, E. and Cale, B. and Caballero, J. A. and Schlecker, M. and Lillo-Box, J. and Zechmeister, M. and Lalitha, S. and Reiners, A. and Soubkiou, A. and Bitsch, B. and Zapatero Osorio, M. R. and Chaturvedi, P. and Hatzes, A. P. and Ricker, G. and Vanderspek, R. and Latham, D. W. and Seager, S. and Winn, J. and Jenkins, J. M. and Aceituno, J. and Amado, P. J. and Barkaoui, K. and Barbieri, M. and Batalha, N. and Bauer, F. F. and Benneke, B. and Benkhaldoun, Z. and Beichman, C. and Berberian, J. and Burt, J. and Butler, R. P. and Caldwell, D. A. and Chintada, A. and Chontos, A. and Christiansen, J. L. and Ciardi, D. R. and Cifuentes, C. and Collins, K. A. and Collins, K. I. and Combs, D. and Cortés-Contreras, M. and Crane, J. D. and Daylan, T. and Dragomir, D. and Esparza-Borges, E. and Evans, P. and Feng, F. and Flowers, E. E. and Fukui, A. and Fulton, B. and Furlan, E. and Gaidos, E. and Geneser, C. and Giacalone, S. and Gillon, M. and Gonzales, E. and Gorjian, V. and Hellier, C. and Hidalgo, D. and Howard, A. W. and Howell, S. and Huber, D. and Isaacson, H. and Jehin, E. and Jensen, E. L. N. and Kaminski, A. and Kane, S. R. and Kawauchi, K. and Kielkopf, J. F. and Klahr, H. and Kosiarek, M. R. and Kreidberg, L. and Kürster, M. and Lafarga, M. and Livingston, J. and Louie, D. and Mann, A. and Madrigal-Aguado, A. and Matson, R. A. and Mocnik, T. and Morales, J. C. and Muirhead, P. S. and Murgas, F. and Nandakumar, S. and Narita, N. and Nowak, G. and Oshagh, M. and Parviainen, H. and Passegger, V. M. and Pollacco, D. and Pozuelos, E. J. and Quirrenbach, A. and Reefe, M. and Ribas, I. and Robertson, P. and Rodríguez-López, C. and Rose, M. E. and Roy, A. and Schweitzer, A. and Schlieder, J. and Shectman, S. and Tanner, A. and Şenavcı, H. V. and Teske, J. and Twicken, J. D. and Villasenor, J. and Wang, S. X. and Weiss, L. M. and Wittrock, J. and Yılmaz, M. and Zohrabi, F. (2020) The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs: LP 714-47 b (TOI 442.01): populating the Neptune desert. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 644 . Art. No. A127. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038016.

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We report the discovery of a Neptune-like planet (LP 714-47 b, P = 4.05204 d, m_b = 30.8 ± 1.5 M_⊕, R_b = 4.7 ± 0.3 R_⊕) located in the “hot Neptune desert”. Confirmation of the TESS Object of Interest (TOI 442.01) was achieved with radial-velocity follow-up using CARMENES, ESPRESSO, HIRES, iSHELL, and PFS, as well as from photometric data using TESS, Spitzer, and ground-based photometry from MuSCAT2, TRAPPIST-South, MONET-South, the George Mason University telescope, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network, the El Sauce telescope, the TÜBİTAK National Observatory, the University of Louisville Manner Telescope, and WASP-South. We also present high-spatial resolution adaptive optics imaging with the Gemini Near-Infrared Imager. The low uncertainties in the mass and radius determination place LP 714-47 b among physically well-characterised planets, allowing for a meaningful comparison with planet structure models. The host star LP 714-47 is a slowly rotating early M dwarf (T_(eff) = 3950 ± 51 K) with a mass of 0.59 ± 0.02 M_⊙ and a radius of 0.58 ± 0.02 R_⊙. From long-term photometric monitoring and spectroscopic activity indicators, we determine a stellar rotation period of about 33 d. The stellar activity is also manifested as correlated noise in the radial-velocity data. In the power spectrum of the radial-velocity data, we detect a second signal with a period of 16 days in addition to the four-day signal of the planet. This could be shown to be a harmonic of the stellar rotation period or the signal of a second planet. It may be possible to tell the difference once more TESS data and radial-velocity data are obtained.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Dreizler, S.0000-0001-6187-5941
Crossfield, I. J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Kossakowski, D.0000-0002-0436-7833
Plavchan, P.0000-0002-8864-1667
Kemmer, J.0000-0003-3929-1442
Luque, R.0000-0002-4671-2957
Espinoza, N.0000-0001-9513-1449
Pallé, E.0000-0003-0987-1593
Stassun, K.0000-0002-3481-9052
Matthews, E.0000-0003-0593-1560
Lillo-Box, J.0000-0003-3742-1987
Bitsch, B.0000-0002-8868-7649
Ricker, G.0000-0003-2058-6662
Vanderspek, R.0000-0001-6763-6562
Latham, D. W.0000-0001-9911-7388
Seager, S.0000-0002-6892-6948
Winn, J.0000-0002-4265-047X
Jenkins, J. M.0000-0002-4715-9460
Barkaoui, K.0000-0003-1464-9276
Batalha, N.0000-0002-7030-9519
Benneke, B.0000-0001-5578-1498
Benkhaldoun, Z.0000-0001-6285-9847
Beichman, C.0000-0002-5627-5471
Burt, J.0000-0002-0040-6815
Butler, R. P.0000-0003-1305-3761
Caldwell, D. A.0000-0003-1963-9616
Christiansen, J. L.0000-0002-8035-4778
Ciardi, D. R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Cifuentes, C.0000-0003-1715-5087
Collins, K. A.0000-0001-6588-9574
Collins, K. I.0000-0003-2781-3207
Crane, J. D.0000-0002-5226-787X
Dragomir, D.0000-0003-2313-467X
Esparza-Borges, E.0000-0002-2341-3233
Evans, P.0000-0002-8465-3353
Fukui, A.0000-0002-4909-5763
Fulton, B.0000-0003-3504-5316
Furlan, E.0000-0001-9800-6248
Gaidos, E.0000-0002-5258-6846
Giacalone, S.0000-0002-8965-3969
Gillon, M.0000-0003-1462-7739
Gorjian, V.0000-0002-8990-2101
Hellier, C.0000-0002-3439-1439
Howard, A. W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Howell, S.0000-0002-2532-2853
Huber, D.0000-0001-8832-4488
Isaacson, H.0000-0002-0531-1073
Jehin, E.0000-0001-8923-488X
Jensen, E. L. N.0000-0002-4625-7333
Kane, S. R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Kawauchi, K.0000-0003-1205-5108
Kreidberg, L.0000-0003-0514-1147
Livingston, J.0000-0002-4881-3620
Mann, A.0000-0003-3654-1602
Madrigal-Aguado, A.0000-0002-9510-0893
Matson, R. A.0000-0001-7233-7508
Muirhead, P. S.0000-0002-0638-8822
Murgas, F.0000-0001-9087-1245
Narita, N.0000-0001-8511-2981
Nowak, G.0000-0002-7031-7754
Oshagh, M.0000-0002-0715-8789
Parviainen, H.0000-0001-5519-1391
Quirrenbach, A.0000-0002-8388-6040
Reefe, M.0000-0003-4701-8497
Robertson, P.0000-0003-0149-9678
Roy, A.0000-0001-8127-5775
Schlieder, J.0000-0001-5347-7062
Tanner, A.0000-0002-2903-2140
Twicken, J. D.0000-0002-6778-7552
Weiss, L. M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Wittrock, J.0000-0002-7424-9891
Additional Information:© 2020 ESO. Received 25 March 2020; Accepted 8 October 2020; Published online 11 December 2020. RV data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via Based on observations carried out at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programme 0103.C-0152(A), and data collected with the 6.5m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. CARMENES is an instrument for the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán de Calar Alto (CAHA, Almería, Spain). CARMENES is funded by the German Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG), the Spanish Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), the European Union through FEDER/ERF FICTS-2011-02 funds, and the members of the CARMENES Consortium (Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Landessternwarte Königstuhl, Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Hamburger Sternwarte, Centro de Astrobiología and Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán), with additional contributions by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, the German Science Foundation through the Major Research Instrumentation Programme and DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, the Klaus Tschira Stiftung, the states of Baden-Württemberg and Niedersachsen, and by the Junta de Andalucía. Based on data from the CARMENES data archive at CAB (INTA-CSIC). We acknowledge the use of public TESS Alert data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products. Some of the observations in the paper made use of the High-Resolution Imaging instrument Zorro. Zorro was funded by the NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program and built at the NASA Ames Research Center by Steve B. Howell, Nic Scott, Elliott P. Horch, and Emmett Quigley. Zorro was mounted on the Gemini South telescope of the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF’s OIR Lab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. This article is based on observations made with the MuSCAT2 instrument, developed by ABC, at Telescopio Carlos Sánchez operated on the island of Tenerife by the IAC in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. This paper is also based on observationsmade in the Observatorios de Canarias del IAC with the Nordic Optical Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by NOTSA in the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos. Data were partly obtained with the MONET/South telescope of the MOnitoring NEtwork of Telescopes, funded by the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, Essen, and operated by the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin, and the South African Astronomical Observatory. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This research made use of Lightkurve, a Python package for Kepler and TESS data analysis (Lightkurve Collaboration 2018). We acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación of the Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovacióny Universidades and the European FEDER/ERF funds through projects AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P, PGC2018-098153-B-C31/C33, AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P, AYA2018-84089, BES-2017-080769, ESP2016-80435-C2-1/2-R, ESP2017-87676-C5-1/2/5-R, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709), the Generalitat de Catalunya through CERCA programme, the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council through grant ST/P000592/1, the JSPS KAKENHI through grants 17H04574, JP18H01265, and 18H05439, and the JST PRESTO through grant JPMJPR1775, the “la Caixa” INPhINIT Fellowship Grant LCF/BQ/IN17/11620033 for Doctoral studies at Spanish Research Centres of Excellence, V.M.P. acknowledges support from NASA Grant NNX17AG24G, Support for this work was provided to J.K.T. by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51399.001 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. The research leading to these results has received funding from the ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions, financed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation. TRAPPIST is funded by the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique, FNRS) under the grant FRFC 2.5.594.09.F, with the participation of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF). M.G. and E.J. are FNRS Senior Research Associates. S.D. acknowledges support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, project no. RE 281/32-1. M.Z. acknowledges support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under DFG RE 1664/12-1 and Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, project no. RE 1664/14-1. M.S. was supported by the DFG Research Unit FOR2544 “Blue Planets around Red Stars”, project no. RE 2694/4-1. I.J.M.C. and E.M. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation through grant AST-1824644. B.B. thanks the European Research Council (ERC Starting Grant 757 448-PAMDORA) for their financial support. D.D. acknowledges support from NASA through Caltech/JPL grant RSA-1006130 and through the TESS Guest Investigator Program Grant 80NSSC19K1727. P.P. acknowledges support from NASA (16-APROBES16-0020 and the Exoplanet Exploration Program) and the National Science Foundation (Astronomy and Astrophysics grant 1716202), the Mt Cuba Astronomical Foundation, and George Mason University start-up and instructional equipment funds. The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility is operated by the University of Hawaii under contract NNH14CK55B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. M.R.K is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE 1 339 067. M.Y. and H.V.S. thank to TÜBİTAK for a partial support in using T100 telescope with project number 19AT100-1474. J.N.W. thanks the Heising-Simons Foundation for support. D.H. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (80NSSC18K1585, 80NSSC19K0379), and the National Science Foundation (AST-1 717 000). T.D. acknowledges support from MIT’s Kavli Institute as a Kavli postdoctoral fellow. This work made use of tpfplotter (developed by J. Lillo-Box, which also made use of the python packages astropy, lightkurve, matplotlib and numpy. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The authors wish to recognise and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Finally, we thank the referee for detailed and helpful comments.
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovacióny UniversidadesUNSPECIFIED
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-69350-C3-2-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)PGC2018-098153-B-C31/C33
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-79425-C3-1/2/3-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2018-84089
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)BES-2017-080769
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2016-80435-C2-1/2-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2017-87676-C5-1/2/5-R
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/P000592/1
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H04574
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H01265
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H05439
Japan Science and Technology AgencyJPMJPR1775
La Caixa FoundationLCF/BQ/IN17/11620033
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51399.001
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Wallonia-Brussels FederationUNSPECIFIED
Fond National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)FRFC 2.5.594.09.F
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)FOR2544
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)RE 281/32-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)RE 1664/12-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)RE 1664/14-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)RE 2694/4-1
European Research Council (ERC)757448
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
George Mason UniversityUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1339067
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)19AT100-1474
Heising-Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)UNSPECIFIED
Beatrice Watson Parrent FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:methods: data analysis – planetary systems – stars: late-type – stars: individual: LP 714-47 – planets and satellites: individual: LP 714-47 b
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210125-123056729
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs - LP 714-47 b (TOI 442.01): populating the Neptune desert S. Dreizler, I. J. M. Crossfield, D. Kossakowski, P. Plavchan, S. V. Jeffers, J. Kemmer, R. Luque, N. Espinoza, E. Pallé, K. Stassun, E. Matthews, B. Cale, J. A. Caballero, M. Schlecker, J. Lillo-Box, M. Zechmeister, S. Lalitha, A. Reiners, A. Soubkiou, B. Bitsch, M. R. Zapatero Osorio, P. Chaturvedi, A. P. Hatzes, G. Ricker, R. Vanderspek, D. W. Latham, S. Seager, J. Winn, J. M. Jenkins, J. Aceituno, P. J. Amado, K. Barkaoui, M. Barbieri, N. M. Batalha, F. F. Bauer, B. Benneke, Z. Benkhaldoun, C. Beichman, J. Berberian, J. Burt, R. P. Butler, D. A. Caldwell, A. Chintada, A. Chontos, J. L. Christiansen, D. R. Ciardi, C. Cifuentes, K. A. Collins, K. I. Collins, D. Combs, M. Cortés-Contreras, J. D. Crane, T. Daylan, D. Dragomir, E. Esparza-Borges, P. Evans, F. Feng, E. E. Flowers, A. Fukui, B. Fulton, E. Furlan, E. Gaidos, C. Geneser, S. Giacalone, M. Gillon, E. Gonzales, V. Gorjian, C. Hellier, D. Hidalgo, A. W. Howard, S. Howell, D. Huber, H. Isaacson, E. Jehin, E. L. N. Jensen, A. Kaminski, S. R. Kane, K. Kawauchi, J. F. Kielkopf, H. Klahr, M. R. Kosiarek, L. Kreidberg, M. Kürster, M. Lafarga, J. Livingston, D. Louie, A. Mann, A. Madrigal-Aguado, R. A. Matson, T. Mocnik, J. C. Morales, P. S. Muirhead, F. Murgas, S. Nandakumar, N. Narita, G. Nowak, M. Oshagh, H. Parviainen, V. M. Passegger, D. Pollacco, F. J. Pozuelos, A. Quirrenbach, M. Reefe, I. Ribas, P. Robertson, C. Rodríguez-López, M. E. Rose, A. Roy, A. Schweitzer, J. Schlieder, S. Shectman, A. Tanner, H. V. Şenavcı, J. Teske, J. D. Twicken, J. Villasenor, S. X. Wang, L. M. Weiss, J. Wittrock, M. Yılmaz and F. Zohrabi. A&A, 644 (2020) A127; DOI:
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ID Code:107712
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:26 Jan 2021 19:48
Last Modified:11 Jan 2022 22:42

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