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PHANGS–HST: star cluster spectral energy distribution fitting with CIGALE

Turner, Jordan A. and Dale, Daniel A. and Lee, Janice C. and Boquien, Médéric and Chandar, Rupali and Deger, Sinan and Larson, Kirsten L. and Mok, Angus and Thilker, David A. and Ubeda, Leonardo and Whitmore, Bradley C. and Belfiore, Francesco and Bigiel, Frank and Blanc, Guillermo A. and Emsellem, Eric and Grasha, Kathryn and Groves, Brent and Klessen, Ralf S. and Kreckel, Kathryn and Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik and Leroy, Adam K. and Rosolowsky, Erik and Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia and Schinnerer, Eva and Schruba, Andreas and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. and Williams, Thomas G. (2021) PHANGS–HST: star cluster spectral energy distribution fitting with CIGALE. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 502 (1). pp. 1366-1385. ISSN 0035-8711. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210202-095210680

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Abstract

The sensitivity and angular resolution of photometric surveys executed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) enable studies of individual star clusters in galaxies out to a few tens of megaparsecs. The fitting of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of star clusters is essential for measuring their physical properties and studying their evolution. We report on the use of the publicly available Code Investigating GALaxy Emission (CIGALE) SED fitting package to derive ages, stellar masses, and reddenings for star clusters identified in the Physics at High Angular resolution in Nearby GalaxieS–HST (PHANGS–HST) survey. Using samples of star clusters in the galaxy NGC 3351, we present results of benchmark analyses performed to validate the code and a comparison to SED fitting results from the Legacy Extragalactic Ultraviolet Survey. We consider procedures for the PHANGS–HST SED fitting pipeline, e.g. the choice of single stellar population models, the treatment of nebular emission and dust, and the use of fluxes versus magnitudes for the SED fitting. We report on the properties of clusters in NGC 3351 and find, on average, the clusters residing in the inner star-forming ring of NGC 3351 are young (<10 Myr) and massive (10⁵ M⊙) while clusters in the stellar bulge are significantly older. Cluster mass function fits yield β values around −2, consistent with prior results with a tendency to be shallower at the youngest ages. Finally, we explore a Bayesian analysis with additional physically motivated priors for the distribution of ages and masses and analyse the resulting cluster distributions.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab055DOIArticle
http://arxiv.org/abs/2101.02134arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Turner, Jordan A.0000-0003-2261-5746
Dale, Daniel A.0000-0002-5782-9093
Lee, Janice C.0000-0002-2278-9407
Boquien, Médéric0000-0003-0946-6176
Chandar, Rupali0000-0003-0085-4623
Deger, Sinan0000-0003-1943-723X
Larson, Kirsten L.0000-0003-3917-6460
Mok, Angus0000-0001-7413-7534
Thilker, David A.0000-0002-8528-7340
Whitmore, Bradley C.0000-0002-3784-7032
Belfiore, Francesco0000-0002-2545-5752
Bigiel, Frank0000-0003-0166-9745
Blanc, Guillermo A.0000-0003-4218-3944
Emsellem, Eric0000-0002-6155-7166
Grasha, Kathryn0000-0002-3247-5321
Groves, Brent0000-0002-9768-0246
Klessen, Ralf S.0000-0002-0560-3172
Kreckel, Kathryn0000-0001-6551-3091
Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik0000-0002-8804-0212
Leroy, Adam K.0000-0002-2545-1700
Rosolowsky, Erik0000-0002-5204-2259
Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia0000-0003-0651-0098
Schinnerer, Eva0000-0002-3933-7677
Van Dyk, Schuyler D.0000-0001-9038-9950
Williams, Thomas G.0000-0002-0012-2142
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Accepted 2021 January 5. Received 2020 December 11; in original form 2020 October 9. Published: 11 January 2021. This work is based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13364. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Based on observations and archival data obtained with the SpitzerSpace Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programs 1100.B-0651, 095.C-0473, and 094.C-0623. This work was carried out as part of the PHANGS collaboration. JCL acknowledges the W.M. Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) for its support of PHANGS–HST collaboration meetings where work for this paper was completed, and benefited from initial discussions at the 2014 KISS workshop, ‘Bridging the Gap: Observations and Theory of Star Formation Meet on Large and Small Scales’. MB acknowledges partial support from FONDECYT regular 1170618. PSB acknowledges support from grant PID2019-107427GB-C31 from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO). JMDK gratefully acknowledges funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the form of an Emmy Noether Research Group (grant number KR4801/1-1) and from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program via the ERC Starting Grant MUSTANG (grant agreement number 714907). KK gratefully acknowledges funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) in the form of an Emmy Noether Research Group (grant number KR4598/2-1, PI: Kreckel). RSK acknowledges financial support from the DFG via the collaborative research centre (SFB 881, Project-ID 138713538) ‘The Milky Way System’ (subprojects A1, B1, B2, and B8). He also thanks for subsidies from the Heidelberg Cluster of Excellence STRUCTURES in the framework of Germany’s Excellence Strategy (grant EXC-2181/1 – 390900948) and for funding from the European Research Council (ERC) via the ERC Synergy Grant ECOGAL (grant 855130). FB acknowledges funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement no. 726384/EMPIRE). ER acknowledges the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), funding reference number RGPIN-2017-03987. ES and TGW acknowledge funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement no. 694343). Data Availability: The PHANGS–HST star cluster catalogues for NGC 3351 and the remaining PHANGS–HST galaxies will be made publicly available through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) in the near future. In the meantime, the NGC 3351 cluster catalogue used in this article will be shared on reasonable request to the corresponding author.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Keck Institute for Space Studies
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1170618
Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades (MCIU)PID2019-107427GB-C31
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)KR4801/1-1
European Research Council (ERC)714907
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)KR4598/2-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB 881
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)EXC-2181/1 – 390900948
European Research Council (ERC)855130
European Research Council (ERC)726384
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)RGPIN-2017-03987
European Research Council (ERC)694343
Subject Keywords:methods: data analysis – galaxies: individual: NGC 3351 – galaxies: star clusters: general
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210202-095210680
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210202-095210680
Official Citation:Jordan A Turner, Daniel A Dale, Janice C Lee, Médéric Boquien, Rupali Chandar, Sinan Deger, Kirsten L Larson, Angus Mok, David A Thilker, Leonardo Ubeda, Bradley C Whitmore, Francesco Belfiore, Frank Bigiel, Guillermo A Blanc, Eric Emsellem, Kathryn Grasha, Brent Groves, Ralf S Klessen, Kathryn Kreckel, J M Diederik Kruijssen, Adam K Leroy, Erik Rosolowsky, Patricia Sanchez-Blazquez, Eva Schinnerer, Andreas Schruba, Schuyler D Van Dyk, Thomas G Williams, PHANGS–HST: star cluster spectral energy distribution fitting with CIGALE, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 502, Issue 1, March 2021, Pages 1366–1385, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stab055
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107850
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:04 Feb 2021 14:56
Last Modified:24 Feb 2021 19:54

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