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The electron-capture origin of supernova 2018zd

Hiramatsu, Daichi and Howell, D. Andrew and Van Dyk, Schuyler D. and Goldberg, Jared A. and Maeda, Keiichi and Moriya, Takashi J. and Tominaga, Nozomu and Nomoto, Ken'ichi and Hosseinzadeh, Griffin and Arcavi, Iair and McCully, Curtis and Burke, Jamison and Bostroem, K. Azalee and Valenti, Stefano and Dong, Yize and Brown, Peter J. and Andrews, Jennifer E. and Bilinski, Christopher and Williams, G. Grant and Smith, Paul S. and Smith, Nathan and Sand, David J. and Anand, Gagandeep S. and Xu, Chengyuan and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Bersten, Melina C. and Folatelli, Gastón and Kelly, Patrick L. and Noguchi, Toshihide and Itagaki, Koichi (2020) The electron-capture origin of supernova 2018zd. . (Unpublished) https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210202-095214084

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Abstract

There are two well-understood regimes of stellar death, although the transition has remained unresolved for 40 years. Stars up to about 8 solar masses lose their outer layers and leave behind a degenerate core -- a white dwarf. More massive stars (above ∼ 10 solar masses) produce an iron core, which collapse to a neutron star or black hole in a core-collapse supernova. Theoretically, stars in between (∼ 8--10 solar masses) are expected to produce an electron-capture supernova when the degenerate O+Ne+Mg core of a super-asymptotic giant branch star collapses as a result of electron capture onto Ne and Mg nuclei. However, until now no supernovae have unequivocally been identified from an electron-capture origin, partly because of uncertainty in theoretical predictions. Here we present six indicators of electron-capture supernovae: progenitor identification, circumstellar material, chemical composition, explosion energy, light curve, and nucleosynthesis. SN 2018zd is the only supernova having strong evidence for or consistent with all six. These new data cast the decades-long debate about SN 1054 in a new light, which has some of these characteristics, but suffers from thousand year old observations and the difficulty of making inferences from evolved supernova remnants.


Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://arxiv.org/abs/2011.02176arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Hiramatsu, Daichi0000-0002-1125-9187
Howell, D. Andrew0000-0003-4253-656X
Van Dyk, Schuyler D.0000-0001-9038-9950
Goldberg, Jared A.0000-0003-1012-3031
Maeda, Keiichi0000-0003-2611-7269
Nomoto, Ken'ichi0000-0001-9553-0685
Hosseinzadeh, Griffin0000-0002-0832-2974
Arcavi, Iair0000-0001-7090-4898
McCully, Curtis0000-0001-5807-7893
Bostroem, K. Azalee0000-0002-4924-444X
Valenti, Stefano0000-0001-8818-0795
Brown, Peter J.0000-0001-6272-5507
Andrews, Jennifer E.0000-0003-0123-0062
Sand, David J.0000-0003-4102-380X
Anand, Gagandeep S.0000-0002-5259-2314
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Bersten, Melina C.0000-0002-6991-0550
Folatelli, Gastón0000-0001-5247-1486
Kelly, Patrick L.0000-0003-3142-997X
Additional Information:We are grateful to A. Suzuki, T. Takiwaki, T. Nozawa, M. Tanaka, C. Kobayashi, R. Ouchi, T. Matsuoka, T. Hayakawa, S. I. Blinnikov, K. Chen, L. Bildsten, and B. Paxton for comments and discussions, to C. P. Gutiérrez and A. Pastorello for sharing the velocity data of the Type II SN sample and SN 2005cs (respectively), and to Peter Iláš for creating the colour-composite image. D. Hiramatsu, D.A.H., G.H., C.M., and J.B. were supported by NSF grants AST-1313484 and AST-1911225, as well as by NASA grant 80NSSC19kf1639. D. Hiramatsu is thankful for support and hospitality by the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU) where many discussions of this work took place. J.A.G. is supported by the NSF GRFP under grant number 1650114. K.M. acknowledges support by JSPS KAKENHI grants 20H00174, 20H04737, 18H04585, 18H05223, and 17H02864. K.N.’s work and D. Hiramatsu’s visit to Kavli IPMU have been supported by the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, and JSPS KAKENHI grants JP17K05382 and JP20K04024, Japan. I.A. is a CIFAR Azrieli Global Scholar in the Gravity and the Extreme Universe Program and acknowledges support from that program, from the Israel Science Foundation (grant numbers 2108/18 and 2752/19), from the United States - Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), and from the Israeli Council for Higher Education Alon Fellowship. Research by K.A.B., S.V., and Y.D. is supported by NSF grant AST–1813176. J.E.A. and N.S. receive support from NSF grant AST-1515559. Research by D.J.S. is supported by NSF grants AST-1821967, 1821987, 1813708, 1813466, and 1908972. G.S.A. acknowledges support from the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) Visiting Graduate Student Fellowship and from NASA/HST grant SNAP-15922 from the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. A.V.F. is grateful for financial assistance from the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley); additional funding was provided by NASA/HST grant AR-14295 from STScI. G.F. acknowledges the support from CONICET through grant PIP-2015-2017-11220150100746CO and from ANPCyT through grant PICT-2017-3133. This paper made use of data from the Las Cumbres Observatory global network of telescopes through the Global Supernova Project. Some of the observations reported herein were obtained at the Bok 2.3m telescope, a facility of the University of Arizona, at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution, and at the W. M. Keck Observatory which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; the observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. This work is partly based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at STScI. These observations are associated with programs GO-9788, GO-13007, and GO-15151. Financial support for program GO-15151 was provided by NASA through a grant from STScI. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and operated by the California Institute of Technology. We thank the support of the staffs at the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory. The authors wish to recognise and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summits of Maunakea and Haleakalā have always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from these mountains. Author Contributions D. Hiramatsu initiated the study, triggered follow-up observations, reduced the Las Cumbres data, produced the light-curve models, performed the analysis, and wrote the manuscript. D.A.H. is the PI of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Supernova Project through which all of the Las Cumbres data were obtained; he also assisted with data interpretations and the manuscript. S.D.V.D. is the PI of the HST program “The Stellar Origins of Supernovae” (GO-15151) through which the post-explosion HST data were obtained; he also found the progenitor candidate in the pre-explosion HST F814W image, calculated the upper limits in the pre-explosion HST and Spitzer images, and assisted with data interpretations and the manuscript. J.A.G. produced the progenitor and light-curve models and assisted with their interpretations and the manuscript. K.M. assisted with theoretical nebular spectral model interpretations and the manuscript. T.J.M. and N.T. assisted with theoretical SAGB progenitor and ECSN light-curve model interpretations and the manuscript. K.N. assisted with theoretical SAGB progenitor and ECSN explosion model interpretations and the manuscript. G.H. assisted in obtaining the Las Cumbres data, reduced the FLOYDS spectra, and contributed comments to the manuscript. I.A., C.M., and J.B. assisted in obtaining the Las Cumbres data; I.A. and C.M. also contributed comments to the manuscript. K.A.B. obtained the Keck LRIS and DEIMOS spectra, reduced the LRIS spectra, and contributed comments to the manuscript. S.V. is the PI of the Keck proposals (2018B, project code U009; 2019A, project code U019; 2019B, projectcode U034) under which the nebular spectra were obtained; he also built the Las Cumbres photometric and spectroscopic reduction pipelines, reduced the Keck DEIMOS spectrum, and contributed comments to the manuscript. Y.D. assisted in obtaining the Keck LRIS and DEIMOS spectra. P.J.B. obtained and reduced the Swift UVOT data. J.E.A. obtained and reduced the MMT and Bok spectra. C.B. reduced and analysed the MMT SPOL spectropolarimetry. G.G.W. is the PI of the Supernova Spectropolarimetry (SNSPOL) project. P.S.S. is the PI of the SPOL instrument. G.G.W. and P.S.S. collected the spectropolarimetric data with the SPOL instrument at the MMT Observatory. N.S. is the PI of the MMT and Bok programs; he also contributed comments to the manuscript. D.J.S. co-leads the University of Arizona team that obtained the MMT and Bok spectra; he also contributed comments to the manuscript. G.S.A. reduced and analysed the archival HST WFC3/IR data (GO-12206) of the host galaxy NGC 2146. C.X. and C.M. analysed and rejected the cosmic rays in the pre-explosion HST F814W image. A.V.F., M.C.B., G.F., and P.L.K. are Co-Is of the HST program (GO-15151); they also contributed comments to the manuscript. T.N. monitored the supernova and provided his photometry. K.I. is the discoverer of the supernova; he also monitored the supernova and provided his photometry. Author Information Reprints and permissions information is available at www.nature.com/reprints. The authors declare that they have no competing financial interests. Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to D. Hiramatsu (dhiramatsu@lco.global). Data Availability The photometric and spectroscopic data that support the findings of this study will be available on the Open Supernova Catalog at https://sne.space/ and WISeREP at https://wiserep.weizmann.ac.il/. Source Data for Figs. 1 & 2, and for Extended Data Figs. 2, 5, & 6 will be provided with the online version of the paper.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFAST-1313484
NSFAST-1911225
NASA80NSSC19K1639
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the UniverseUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1650114
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)20H00174
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)20H04737
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H04585
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)18H05223
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)17H02864
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17K05382
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP20K04024
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Israel Science Foundation2108/18
Israel Science Foundation2752/19
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Council for Higher Education (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1813176
NSFAST-1515559
NSFAST-1821967
NSFAST-1821987
NSFAST-1813708
NSFAST-1813466
NSFAST-1908972
Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)UNSPECIFIED
NASASNAP-15922
NASANAS5-26555
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
TABASGO FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
NASAAR-14295
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)PIP-2015-2017-11220150100746CO
Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT)PICT-2017-3133
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210202-095214084
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210202-095214084
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107851
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:04 Feb 2021 16:18
Last Modified:04 Feb 2021 16:18

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