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Association of IceCube neutrinos with radio sources observed at Owens Valley and Metsähovi Radio Observatories

Hovatta, T. and Lindfors, E. and Kiehlmann, S. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Hodges, M. and Liodakis, I. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Pearson, T. J. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Reeves, R. A. and Suutarinen, S. and Tammi, J. and Tornikoski, M. (2021) Association of IceCube neutrinos with radio sources observed at Owens Valley and Metsähovi Radio Observatories. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 650 . Art. No. A83. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039481.

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Identifying the most likely sources for high-energy neutrino emission has been one of the main topics in high-energy astrophysics ever since the first observation of high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. Active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets, blazars, have been considered to be one of the main candidates due to their ability to accelerate particles to high energies. We study the connection between radio emission and IceCube neutrino events using data from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory and Metsähovi Radio Observatory blazar monitoring programs. We identify sources in our radio monitoring sample, which are positionally consistent with IceCube high-energy neutrino events. We estimate their mean flux density and variability amplitudes around the neutrino arrival time, and compare these with values from random samples to establish the significance of our results.We find radio source associations within our samples with 16 high-energy neutrino events detected by IceCube. Nearly half of the associated sources are not detected in the γ-ray energies, but their radio variability properties and Doppler boosting factors are similar to the γ-ray detected objects in our sample so that they could still be potential neutrino emitters. We find that the number of strongly flaring objects in our samples is unlikely to occur due to a random coincidence (at 2σ level), and in the case of OVRO samples, the sample of associated sources is on average at an active state compared to random samples. Based on our results we conclude that although it is clear that not all neutrino events are associated with strong radio flaring blazars, when we see large amplitude radio flares in a blazar at the same time as a neutrino event, it is unlikely to happen by random coincidence.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper ItemFlux density data
Hovatta, T.0000-0002-2024-8199
Lindfors, E.0000-0002-9155-6199
Kiehlmann, S.0000-0001-6314-9177
Max-Moerbeck, W.0000-0002-5491-5244
Liodakis, I.0000-0001-9200-4006
Lähteenmäki, A.0000-0002-0393-0647
Pearson, T. J.0000-0001-5213-6231
Readhead, A. C. S.0000-0001-9152-961X
Reeves, R. A.0000-0001-5704-271X
Tornikoski, M.0000-0003-1249-6026
Additional Information:© ESO 2021. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 21 September 2020; Accepted 4 April 2021; Published online 10 June 2021. We thank A. Plavin, Y. Kovalev, M. Petropoulou, A. Franckowiak, M. Kadler, P. Hakala, and V. Pavlidou for useful discussions, and K. Wiik for help in setting up the computations. The OVRO 40 m program was supported by NASA grants NNG06GG1G, NNX08AW31G, NNX11A043G, and NNX13AQ89G from 2006 to 2016 and NSF grants AST-0808050, and AST-1109911 from 2008 to 2014, along with private funding from Caltech and the MPIfR. T. H. was supported by the Academy of Finland projects 317383, 320085, and 322535. E. L. was supported by the Academy of Finland projects 317636 and 320045. S. K. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 771282. W.M. acknowledges support from ANID projects Basal AFB-170002 and PAI79160080. R. R. acknowledges support from ANID Basal AFB-170002, and ANID-FONDECYT grant 1181620. Handling of catalogs in the paper was partially done using TOPCAT (Taylor 2005). The computer resources of the Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC) and the FGCI project (Finland) are acknowledged.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Academy of Finland317383
Academy of Finland320085
Academy of Finland322535
Academy of Finland317636
Academy of Finland320045
European Research Council (ERC)771282
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1181620
Subject Keywords:neutrinos – BL Lacertae objects: general – quasars: general – galaxies: jets – radio continuum: galaxies
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210202-095255677
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Association of IceCube neutrinos with radio sources observed at Owens Valley and Metsähovi Radio Observatories. T. Hovatta, E. Lindfors, S. Kiehlmann, W. Max-Moerbeck, M. Hodges, I. Liodakis, A. Lähteemäki, T. J. Pearson, A. C. S. Readhead, R. A. Reeves, S. Suutarinen, J. Tammi and M. Tornikoski. A&A, 650 (2021) A83; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107863
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:03 Feb 2021 20:13
Last Modified:10 Jun 2021 20:39

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