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SPICY: The Spitzer/IRAC Candidate YSO Catalog for the Inner Galactic Midplane

Kuhns, Michael A. and de Souza, Rafael S. and Krone-Martins, Alberto and Castro-Ginard, Alfred and Ishida, Emille E. O. and Povich, Matthew S. and Hillenbrand, Lynne A. (2020) SPICY: The Spitzer/IRAC Candidate YSO Catalog for the Inner Galactic Midplane. . (Unpublished) https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210204-092705251

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Abstract

We present ~120,000 Spitzer/IRAC candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) based on surveys of the Galactic midplane between l~255 deg and 110 deg, including the GLIMPSE I, II, and 3D, Vela-Carina, Cygnus X, and SMOG surveys (613 square degrees), augmented by near-infrared catalogs. We employed a classification scheme that uses the flexibility of a tailored statistical learning method and curated YSO datasets to take full advantage of IRAC's spatial resolution and sensitivity in the mid-infrared ~3-9 micron range. Multi-wavelength color/magnitude distributions provide intuition about how the classifier separates YSOs from other red IRAC sources and validate that the sample is consistent with expectations for disk/envelope-bearing pre-main-sequence stars. We also identify areas of IRAC color space associated with objects with strong silicate absorption or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission. Spatial distributions and variability properties help corroborate the youthful nature of our sample. Most of the candidates are in regions with mid-IR nebulosity, associated with star-forming clouds, but others appear distributed in the field. Using Gaia DR2 distance estimates, we find groups of YSO candidates associated with the Local Arm, the Sagittarius-Carina Arm, and the Scutum-Centaurus Arm. Candidate YSOs visible to the Zwicky Transient Facility tend to exhibit higher variability amplitudes than randomly selected field stars of the same magnitude, with many high-amplitude variables having light-curve morphologies characteristic of YSOs. Given that no current or planned instruments will significantly exceed IRAC's spatial resolution while possessing its wide-area mapping capabilities, Spitzer-based catalogs such as ours will remain the main resources for mid-infrared YSOs in the Galactic midplane for the near future.


Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://arxiv.org/abs/2011.12961arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Kuhns, Michael A.0000-0002-0631-7514
Krone-Martins, Alberto0000-0002-2308-6623
Castro-Ginard, Alfred0000-0002-9419-3725
Povich, Matthew S.0000-0001-9062-3583
Additional Information:We thank Robert Benjamin for useful discussions about GLIMPSE and spiral structure of the Galaxy, and Philip Lucas and Leigh Smith for assistance with the UKIDSS and VVV catalogs. This work is a result of the 6th COIN Residence Program (CRP#6; https://cosmostatistics-initiative.org/residence-programs/crp6) held in Chamonix, France in August 2019. COIN is financially supported by CNRS as part of its MOMENTUM programme over the 2018-2020 period. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This work has also made use of data from the European Space Agency mission Gaia, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium. Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This work is also based in part on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin 48-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility project. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and operated by the California Institute of Technology. AKM acknowledges the support from the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through grants SFRH/BPD/74697/2010, PTDC/FIS-AST/31546/2017 and from the Portuguese Strategic Programme UID/FIS/00099/2013 for CENTRA. Facility: 2MASS, Gaia, Spitzer (IRAC, MIPS), UKIRT, VISTA/VIRCAM, WISE, ZTF, IRSA Software: caret (Kuhn 2015), mclust (Scrucca et al. 2016), hdbscan (McInnes et al. 2017), modeest (Poncet 2019), mclust (Scrucca et al. 2016), PostgreSQL (PostgreSQL Global Development Group 2020), Python, R (R Core Team 2019), rjags (Plummer 2017, 2019), SAOImage DS9 (Joye & Mandel 2003), sbgcop (Hoff 2018), TOPCAT & STILTS (Taylor 2005)
Group:Astronomy Department, Zwicky Transient Facility, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1440341
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)SFRH/BPD/74697/2010
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/31546/2017
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UID/FIS/00099/2013
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210204-092705251
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210204-092705251
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107903
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Feb 2021 20:38
Last Modified:05 Feb 2021 20:38

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