A Caltech Library Service

Stellar Rotation in the Gaia Era: Revised Open Clusters' Sequences

Godoy-Rivera, Diego and Pinsonneault, Marc H. and Rebull, Luisa M. (2021) Stellar Rotation in the Gaia Era: Revised Open Clusters' Sequences. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 257 (2). Art. No. 46. ISSN 0067-0049. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ac2058.

[img] PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
See Usage Policy.

[img] Plain Text (Table B1) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

[img] Plain Text (Table E1) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.

[img] Plain Text (Table F1) - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


The period versus mass diagrams (i.e., rotational sequences) of open clusters provide crucial constraints for angular momentum evolution studies. However, their memberships are often heavily contaminated by field stars, which could potentially bias the interpretations. In this paper, we use data from Gaia DR2 to reassess the memberships of seven open clusters with ground- and space-based rotational data, and present an updated view of stellar rotation as a function of mass and age. We use the Gaia astrometry to identify the cluster members in phase space, and the photometry to derive revised ages and place the stars on a consistent mass scale. Applying our membership analysis to the rotational sequences reveals that: (1) the contamination in clusters observed from the ground can reach up to ∼35%; (2) the overall fraction of rotational outliers decreases substantially when the field contaminants are removed, but some outliers persist; (3) there is a sharp upper edge in the rotation periods at young ages; (4) at young ages, stars in the 1.0–0.6M⊙ range inhabit a global maximum of rotation periods, potentially providing an optimal window for habitable planets. Additionally, we see clear evidence for a strongly mass-dependent spin-down process. In the regime where rapid rotators are leaving the saturated domain, the rotational distributions broaden (in contradiction with popular models), which we interpret as evidence that the torque must be lower for rapid rotators than for intermediate ones. The cleaned rotational sequences from ground-based observations can be as constraining as those obtained from space.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Godoy-Rivera, Diego0000-0003-4556-1277
Pinsonneault, Marc H.0000-0002-7549-7766
Rebull, Luisa M.0000-0001-6381-515X
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 December 21; revised 2021 July 30; accepted 2021 August 22; published 2021 November 29. We thank Ângela Santos, Rafael García, and Savita Mathur for providing period measurements for the NGC 6811 stars. We also thank John Stauffer for useful discussions. D.G.R. and M.H.P. acknowledge support from NASA grant 80NSSC19K0597. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Open star clusters; Star clusters; Stellar ages; Stellar rotation; Low mass stars
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Open star clusters (1160); Star clusters (1567); Stellar ages (1581); Stellar rotation (1629); Low mass stars (2050)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210204-092708651
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Diego Godoy-Rivera et al 2021 ApJS 257 46
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107904
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Feb 2021 20:40
Last Modified:29 Nov 2021 23:36

Repository Staff Only: item control page