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The GALEX-PTF Experiment. II. Supernova Progenitor Radius and Energetics via Shock-cooling Modeling

Ganot, Noam and Ofek, Eran O. and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Schulze, Steve and Soumagnac, Maayane T. and Morag, Jonathan and Waxman, Eli and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Neill, James (2022) The GALEX-PTF Experiment. II. Supernova Progenitor Radius and Energetics via Shock-cooling Modeling. Astrophysical Journal, 931 (1). Art. No. 71. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac67ef.

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The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early ultraviolet (UV) observations of core-collapse supernovae (CC SNe). We present the results from a simultaneous Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) and Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) search for early UV emission from SNe. We analyze five CC SNe for which we obtained near-UV (NUV) measurements before the first ground-based R-band detection. We introduce SOPRANOS, a new maximum likelihood fitting tool for models with variable temporal validity windows, and use it to fit the Sapir & Waxman shock-cooling model to the data. We report four Type II SNe with progenitor radii in the range of R* ≈ 600–1100 R⊙ and a shock velocity parameter in the range of vs* ≈ 2700–6000 km s⁻¹ (E/M ≈ 2–8 × 10⁵⁰ erg/M⊙) and one Type IIb SN with R* ≈ 210 R⊙ and vs* ≈ 11,000 km s⁻¹ (E/M ≈ 1.8 × 10⁵¹ erg/M⊙). Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus suggests that a dedicated, systematic SN survey in the NUV band, such as the wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission, is a compelling method to study the properties of SN progenitors and SN energetics.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ofek, Eran O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Schulze, Steve0000-0001-6797-1889
Soumagnac, Maayane T.0000-0001-6753-1488
Waxman, Eli0000-0002-9038-5877
Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Neill, James0000-0002-0466-1119
Additional Information:© 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2020 December 5; revised 2022 March 27; accepted 2022 April 9; published 2022 May 25. We want to thank Barak Zackay for useful discussions leading to the development of the SOPRANOS formalism. We also want to thank an anonymous referee for a very helpful report. E.O.O. is grateful for the support by grants from the Israel Science Foundation, Minerva, Israeli Ministry of Technology and Science, the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation, Weizmann-UK, Weizmann-Yale, the Weizmann-Caltech grants, the Norman E. Alexander Family M. Foundation ULTRASAT Data Center Fund, Jonathan Beare, André Deloro Institute for Space and Optics Research, Schwartz/Reisman Collaborative Science Program, and the Willner Family Leadership Institute for the Weizmann Institute of Science. A.G.Y. is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the ISF GW excellence center, an IMOS space infrastructure grant and BSF/Transformative and GIF grants, as well as the André Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and Optics, The Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science, the Schwartz/Reisman Collaborative Science Program, and the Norman E Alexander Family M Foundation ULTRASAT Data Center Fund, Minerva and Yeda-Sela; A.G.Y. is the incumbent of the The Arlyn Imberman Professorial Chair. S.S. acknowledges support from the G.R.E.A.T research environment, funded by Vetenskapsrådet, the Swedish Research Council, project number 2016-06012. M.M.K. acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science (Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Norman E. Alexander Family M. FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Deloro Institute for Advanced Research in Space and OpticsUNSPECIFIED
Schwartz/Reisman Collaborative Science ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Willner Family Leadership InstituteUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)725161
German-Israeli Foundation for Research and DevelopmentUNSPECIFIED
Arlyn Imberman Professorial ChairUNSPECIFIED
Swedish Research Council2016-06012
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Supernovae; Core-collapse supernovae; High energy astrophysics
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Supernovae (1668); Core-collapse supernovae (304); High energy astrophysics (739)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210204-092718925
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Noam Ganot et al 2022 ApJ 931 71
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107907
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Feb 2021 20:48
Last Modified:30 Jun 2022 16:07

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