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AGN on the move: A search for off-nuclear AGN from recoiling SMBHs and ongoing galaxy mergers with the Zwicky Transient Facility

Ward, Charlotte and Gezari, Suvi and Frederick, Sara and Hammerstein, Erica and Nugent, Peter and van Velzen, Sjoert and Drake, Andrew and García Pérez, Abigail and Oyoo, Immaculate and Bellm, Eric C. and Duev, Dmitry A. and Graham, Matthew J. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kaye, Stephen and Mahabal, Ashish A. and Masci, Frank J. and Rusholme, Ben and Soumagnac, Maayane T. and Yan, Lin (2020) AGN on the move: A search for off-nuclear AGN from recoiling SMBHs and ongoing galaxy mergers with the Zwicky Transient Facility. . (Unpublished) https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210204-092722306

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Abstract

A supermassive black hole (SMBH) ejected from the potential well of its host galaxy via gravitational wave recoil carries important information about the mass ratio and spin alignment of the pre-merger SMBH binary. Such a recoiling SMBH may be detectable as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) broad line region offset by up to 10 kpc from a disturbed host galaxy. We describe a novel methodology using forward modeling with The Tractor to search for such offset AGN in a sample of 5493 optically variable AGN detected with the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). We present the discovery of 9 AGN which may be spatially offset from their host galaxies and are candidates for recoiling SMBHs. Five of these offset AGN exhibit double-peaked broad Balmer emission from an unobscured accretion disk and four show radio emission indicative of a relativistic jet. The fraction of double-peaked emitters in our spatially offset AGN sample is significantly larger than the 16% double-peaked emitter fraction observed for ZTF AGN overall. In our sample of variable AGN we also identified 52 merging galaxies, including a new spectroscopically confirmed dual AGN. Finally, we detected the dramatic rebrightening of SDSS1133, a previously discovered variable object and recoiling SMBH candidate, in ZTF. The flare was accompanied by the re-emergence of strong P-Cygni line features indicating it likely is an outbursting luminous blue variable star.


Item Type:Report or Paper (Discussion Paper)
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://arxiv.org/abs/2011.11656arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Ward, Charlotte0000-0002-4557-6682
Gezari, Suvi0000-0003-3703-5154
Frederick, Sara0000-0001-9676-730X
Hammerstein, Erica0000-0002-5698-8703
Nugent, Peter0000-0002-3389-0586
van Velzen, Sjoert0000-0002-3859-8074
Bellm, Eric C.0000-0001-8018-5348
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Graham, Matthew J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Mahabal, Ashish A.0000-0003-2242-0244
Masci, Frank J.0000-0002-8532-9395
Rusholme, Ben0000-0001-7648-4142
Soumagnac, Maayane T.0000-0001-6753-1488
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Additional Information:S. Gezari is supported in part by NSF grant 1616566. This work relied on observations obtained with the Samuel Oschin Telescope 48-inch and the 60-inch Telescope at the Palomar Observatory as part of the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) survey. ZTF is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1440341 and a collaboration including Caltech, IPAC, the Weizmann Institute for Science, the Oskar Klein Center at Stockholm University, the University of Maryland, the University of Washington, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and Humboldt University, Los Alamos National Laboratories, the TANGO Consortium of Taiwan, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. Operations are conducted by COO, IPAC, and UW. SED Machine is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1106171. This work was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No 1545949. MMK acknowledges generous support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. P.E.N. acknowledges support from the DOE under grant DE-AC02-05CH11231, Analytical Modeling for Extreme-Scale Computing Environments. These results made use of the Lowell Discovery Telescope (LDT) at Lowell Observatory. Lowell is a private, non-pro�fit institution dedicated to astrophysical research and public appreciation of astronomy and operates the LDT in partnership with Boston University, the University of Maryland, the University of Toledo, Northern Arizona University and Yale University. The upgrade of the DeVeny optical spectrograph has been funded by a generous grant from John and Ginger Giovale. This project used data obtained with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), which was constructed by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundacao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundacao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cienti�co e Tecnologico and the Ministerio da Ciencia, Tecnologia e Inovacao, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne National Laboratory, the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas-Madrid, the University of Chicago, University College London, the DES-Brazil Consortium, the University of Edinburgh, the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC), the Institut de Fisica d'Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Ludwig-Maximilians Universitat Munchen and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, the University of Michigan, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the University of Nottingham, the Ohio State University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, the University of Sussex, and Texas A&M University. Software: Ampel (Nordin et al. 2019), Astropy (Robitaille et al. 2013; Price-Whelan et al. 2018), catsHTM (Soumagnac & Ofek 2018), extcats (github.com/MatteoGiomi/extcats), GROWTH Marshal (Kasliwal et al. 2019), TheTractor (Lang et al. 2016).
Group:Astronomy Department, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Zwicky Transient Facility
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFAST-1616566
NSFAST-1440341
ZTF partner institutionsUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1106171
NSFOISE-1545949
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
John and Ginger GiovaleUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli Institute for Cosmological PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP)UNSPECIFIED
Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP)UNSPECIFIED
Fundacao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy SurveyUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210204-092722306
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210204-092722306
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107908
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Feb 2021 20:49
Last Modified:12 Feb 2021 18:17

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