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Role of iodine oxoacids in atmospheric aerosol nucleation

He, Xu-Cheng and Tham, Yee Jun and Dada, Lubna and Wang, Mingyi and Finkenzeller, Henning and Stolzenburg, Dominik and Iyer, Siddharth and Simon, Mario and Kürten, Andreas and Shen, Jiali and Rörup, Birte and Rissanen, Matti and Schobesberger, Siegfried and Baalbaki, Rima and Wang, Dongyu S. and Koenig, Theodore K. and Jokinen, Tuija and Sarnela, Nina and Beck, Lisa J. and Almeida, João and Amanatidis, Stavros and Amorim, António and Ataei, Farnoush and Baccarini, Andrea and Bertozzi, Barbara and Bianchi, Federico and Brilke, Sophia and Caudillo, Lucía and Chen, Dexian and Chiu, Randall and Chu, Biwu and Dias, António and Ding, Aijun and Dommen, Josef and Duplissy, Jonathan and El Haddad, Imad and Gonzalez Carracedo, Loïc and Granzin, Manuel and Hansel, Armin and Heinritzi, Martin and Hofbauer, Victoria and Junninen, Heikki and Kangasluoma, Juha and Kemppainen, Deniz and Kim, Changhyuk and Kong, Weimeng and Krechmer, Jordan E. and Kvashin, Aleksander and Laitinen, Totti and Lamkaddam, Houssni and Lee, Chuan Ping and Lehtipalo, Katrianne and Leiminger, Markus and Li, Zijun and Makhmutov, Vladimir and Manninen, Hanna E. and Marie, Guillaume and Marten, Ruby and Mathot, Serge and Mauldin, Roy L. and Mentler, Bernhard and Möhler, Ottmar and Müller, Tatjana and Nie, Wei and Onnela, Antti and Petäjä, Tuukka and Pfeifer, Joschka and Philippov, Maxim and Ranjithkumar, Ananth and Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso and Salma, Imre and Scholz, Wiebke and Schuchmann, Simone and Schulze, Benjamin and Steiner, Gerhard and Stozhkov, Yuri and Tauber, Christian and Tomé, António and Thakur, Roseline C. and Väisänen, Olli and Vazquez-Pufleau, Miguel and Wagner, Andrea C. and Wang, Yonghong and Weber, Stefan K. and Winkler, Paul M. and Wu, Yusheng and Xiao, Mao and Yan, Chao and Ye, Qing and Ylisirniö, Arttu and Zauner-Wieczorek, Marcel and Zha, Qiaozhi and Zhou, Putian and Flagan, Richard C. and Curtius, Joachim and Baltensperger, Urs and Kulmala, Markku and Kerminen, Veli-Matti and Kurtén, Theo and Donahue, Neil M. and Volkamer, Rainer and Kirkby, Jasper and Worsnop, Douglas R. and Sipilä, Mikko (2021) Role of iodine oxoacids in atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Science, 371 (6529). pp. 589-595. ISSN 0036-8075.

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Iodic acid (HIO₃) is known to form aerosol particles in coastal marine regions, but predicted nucleation and growth rates are lacking. Using the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber, we find that the nucleation rates of HIO₃ particles are rapid, even exceeding sulfuric acid–ammonia rates under similar conditions. We also find that ion-induced nucleation involves IO₃⁻ and the sequential addition of HIO₃ and that it proceeds at the kinetic limit below +10°C. In contrast, neutral nucleation involves the repeated sequential addition of iodous acid (HIO₂) followed by HIO₃, showing that HIO₂ plays a key stabilizing role. Freshly formed particles are composed almost entirely of HIO₃, which drives rapid particle growth at the kinetic limit. Our measurements indicate that iodine oxoacid particle formation can compete with sulfuric acid in pristine regions of the atmosphere.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Materials
He, Xu-Cheng0000-0002-7416-306X
Tham, Yee Jun0000-0001-7924-5841
Dada, Lubna0000-0003-1105-9043
Wang, Mingyi0000-0001-5782-2513
Finkenzeller, Henning0000-0002-8349-3714
Stolzenburg, Dominik0000-0003-1014-1360
Iyer, Siddharth0000-0001-5989-609X
Simon, Mario0000-0002-4900-7460
Kürten, Andreas0000-0002-8955-4450
Rörup, Birte0000-0001-8755-9453
Rissanen, Matti0000-0003-0463-8098
Schobesberger, Siegfried0000-0002-5777-4897
Baalbaki, Rima0000-0002-4480-2107
Wang, Dongyu S.0000-0001-7549-1578
Koenig, Theodore K.0000-0002-3756-4315
Jokinen, Tuija0000-0002-1280-1396
Sarnela, Nina0000-0003-1874-3235
Beck, Lisa J.0000-0003-3700-5895
Almeida, João0000-0002-8502-2721
Amanatidis, Stavros0000-0002-4924-8424
Amorim, António0000-0003-0638-2321
Baccarini, Andrea0000-0003-4614-247X
Bertozzi, Barbara0000-0003-2571-6585
Bianchi, Federico0000-0003-2996-3604
Brilke, Sophia0000-0003-3133-249X
Chen, Dexian0000-0001-6963-5205
Chiu, Randall0000-0002-9892-2761
Chu, Biwu0000-0002-7548-5669
Dias, António0000-0002-0842-4639
Ding, Aijun0000-0003-4481-5386
Dommen, Josef0000-0002-0006-0009
Duplissy, Jonathan0000-0001-8819-0264
El Haddad, Imad0000-0002-2461-7238
Hansel, Armin0000-0002-1062-2394
Heinritzi, Martin0000-0002-9171-8127
Hofbauer, Victoria0000-0001-9036-4446
Junninen, Heikki0000-0001-7178-9430
Kangasluoma, Juha0000-0002-1639-1187
Kemppainen, Deniz0000-0001-8282-0501
Kim, Changhyuk0000-0002-8744-4880
Kong, Weimeng0000-0002-9432-2857
Krechmer, Jordan E.0000-0003-3642-0659
Kvashin, Aleksander0000-0001-7218-6738
Lamkaddam, Houssni0000-0001-5166-6353
Lee, Chuan Ping0000-0003-0051-8179
Lehtipalo, Katrianne0000-0002-1660-2706
Leiminger, Markus0000-0003-3343-5425
Li, Zijun0000-0002-2973-1216
Makhmutov, Vladimir0000-0002-2242-1055
Manninen, Hanna E.0000-0002-0419-4020
Marie, Guillaume0000-0003-1454-0908
Marten, Ruby0000-0003-0417-4350
Mauldin, Roy L.0000-0002-8569-8561
Mentler, Bernhard0000-0003-3852-0397
Müller, Tatjana0000-0001-6453-9134
Nie, Wei0000-0002-6048-0515
Onnela, Antti0000-0001-9946-9762
Petäjä, Tuukka0000-0002-1881-9044
Pfeifer, Joschka0000-0002-9172-4447
Philippov, Maxim0000-0003-4302-0020
Ranjithkumar, Ananth0000-0002-6780-456X
Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso0000-0002-0060-1581
Salma, Imre0000-0001-8319-1647
Scholz, Wiebke0000-0003-2617-620X
Schulze, Benjamin0000-0002-6405-8872
Steiner, Gerhard0000-0003-3008-1414
Stozhkov, Yuri0000-0003-1917-0328
Tauber, Christian0000-0003-1453-1067
Tomé, António0000-0001-9144-7120
Thakur, Roseline C.0000-0002-3238-4171
Väisänen, Olli0000-0001-5674-7013
Vazquez-Pufleau, Miguel0000-0001-6836-5098
Wagner, Andrea C.0000-0003-3159-9434
Wang, Yonghong0000-0003-2498-9143
Weber, Stefan K.0000-0001-7408-9069
Winkler, Paul M.0000-0001-6861-6029
Xiao, Mao0000-0002-2790-4443
Yan, Chao0000-0002-5735-9597
Ye, Qing0000-0003-3797-8988
Ylisirniö, Arttu0000-0001-9793-9994
Zauner-Wieczorek, Marcel0000-0002-0867-665X
Zha, Qiaozhi0000-0001-6301-7086
Zhou, Putian0000-0003-0803-7337
Flagan, Richard C.0000-0001-5690-770X
Curtius, Joachim0000-0003-3153-4630
Baltensperger, Urs0000-0003-0079-8713
Kulmala, Markku0000-0003-3464-7825
Kerminen, Veli-Matti0000-0002-0706-669X
Kurtén, Theo0000-0002-6416-4931
Donahue, Neil M.0000-0003-3054-2364
Volkamer, Rainer0000-0002-0899-1369
Kirkby, Jasper0000-0003-2341-9069
Worsnop, Douglas R.0000-0002-8928-8017
Sipilä, Mikko0000-0002-8594-7003
Additional Information:© 2021 American Association for the Advancement of Science. This is an article distributed under the terms of the Science Journals Default License. Received 27 July 2020; accepted 6 January 2021. We thank the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) for supporting CLOUD with important technical and financial resources and for providing a particle beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron. This research has received support from the Academy of Finland (projects 316114, 307331, 310682, 266388, 3282290, 306853, 296628, 229574, 333397, 326948, and 1325656); the European Research Council (projects 692891, 616075, 764991, 316662, 742206, and 714621); CSC – Finnish IT center; the EC Seventh Framework Programme and the EU H2020 programme Marie Skłodowska Curie ITN “CLOUD-TRAIN” (316662) and “CLOUD-MOTION” (764991); Austrian Science Fund (FWF) (J3951-N36 and P27295-N20); the Swiss National Science Foundation (20FI20_159851, 200021_169090, 200020_172602, and 20FI20_172622); the U.S. National Science Foundation (grants AGS1447056, AGS1439551, AGS1801574, AGS1620530, AGS1801897, AGS153128, AGS1649147, AGS1801280, AGS1602086, and AGS1801329); MSCA H2020 COFUND-FP-CERN-2014 fellowship (665779); German Federal Ministry of Education and Research: CLOUD-16 (01LK1601A); Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (CERN/FIS-COM/0014/2017); Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence in Atmospheric Sciences (grant 272041); European Regional Development Fund (project MOBTT42); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Climate Change; Yangtze River Delta Atmosphere and Earth System Science National Observation and Research Station; Estonian Research Council (project PRG714); Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (K116788 and K132254); NASA Graduate Fellowship (NASA-NNX16AP36H); and ACTRIS 2TNA H2020 OCTAVE (654109). We are also grateful for all the people who have contributed to the field measurements around the world. Author contributions: X.-C.H., M.K., R.V., J.Ki., and M.Sip. planned the experiments. X.-C.H., Y.J.T., L.D., M.W., H.F., D.S., M.Sim., A.Kü., J.S., B.R., S.I., M.R., S.Scho., R.B., D.S.W., T.K.K., S.A., A.A., A.B., S.B., L.C., D.C., B.C., A.Dia., J.Du., I.E.H., R.C.F., L.G.C., M.G., M.H., V.H., H.J., J.Ka., D.K., C.K., W.K., J.E.K., A.Kv., T.L., H.L., C.P.L., K.L., M.L., Z.L., V.M., H.E.M., G.M., R.M., R.L.M., B.M., O.M., T.M., A.O., T.P., J.P., M.P., W.S., S.Schu., B.S., G.S., Y.S., A.T., M.V.-P., A.C.W., S.K.W., W.N., P.M.W., Y.Wu., A.Y., Y.Wang, M.Z.-W., Q.Z., J.C., M.K., U.B., R.V., J.Ki., and M.Sip. prepared the CLOUD facility or measuring instruments. X.-C.H., Y.J.T., L.D., M.W., H.F., D.S., M.Sim., J.S., B.R., M.R., R.B., D.S.W., T.K.K., T.J., N.S., L.J.B., F.A., A.B., F.B., B.B., S.B., D.C., R.C., A.Din., J.Du., L.G.C., M.G., M.H., V.H., H.J., D.K., C.K., J.E.K., H.L., C.P.L., M.L., Z.L., H.E.M., G.M., R.M., R.L.M., B.M., T.M., J.P., A.R., I.S., S.Schu., B.S., G.S., C.T., A.T., R.C.T., O.V., M.V.-P., A.C.W., S.K.W., W.N., Y.Wu, M.X., C.Y., Q.Y., A.Y., Y.Wang, M.Z.-W., R.V., and J.Ki. collected the data. X.-C.H., Y.J.T., L.D., M.W., H.F., D.S., M.Sim., J.S., B.R., R.C.F., D.K., C.K., W.K., S.K.W., P.M.W., P.Z., T.K., R.V., J.Ki, and D.R.W. analyzed the data. J.Ki. and X.-C.H. wrote the manuscript with contributions from R.V., Y.J.T., M.W., H.F., T.K.K., M.K., T.K., N.M.D., D.R.W., and M.Sip. X.-C.H., Y.J.T., L.D., M.W., H.F., D.S., B.R., S.I., M.R., S.Scho., R.B., T.K.K., N.S., A.B., A.Din., J.Do., J.Du., I.E.H., A.H., H.J., J.Ka., J.E.K., H.L., C.P.L., K.L., R.L.M., B.M., O.M., T.P., A.S.-L., I.S., P.Z., J.C., U.B., M.K., V.-M.K., T.K., N.M.D., R.V., J.Ki., D.R.W., and M.Sip. commented on and edited the manuscript. The authors declare no competing interests. Data and materials availability: Data for all figures in the main text and supplementary materials are available at the Zenodo repository (38).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Academy of Finland316114
Academy of Finland307331
Academy of Finland310682
Academy of Finland266388
Academy of Finland3282290
Academy of Finland306853
Academy of Finland296628
Academy of Finland229574
Academy of Finland333397
Academy of Finland326948
Academy of Finland1325656
European Research Council (ERC)692891
European Research Council (ERC)616075
Marie Curie Fellowship764991
Marie Curie Fellowship316662
European Research Council (ERC)742206
European Research Council (ERC)714621
Finnish IT Center for Science (CSC)UNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie Fellowship316662
Marie Curie Fellowship764991
FWF Der WissenschaftsfondsJ3951-N36
FWF Der WissenschaftsfondsP27295-N20
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)20FI20_159851
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)200021_169090
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)200020_172602
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)20FI20_172622
Marie Curie Fellowship665779
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)01LK1601A
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)CERN/FIS-COM/0014/2017
Academy of Finland272041
European Regional Development FundMOBTT42
Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Climate ChangeUNSPECIFIED
Yangtze River Delta Atmosphere and Earth System Science National Observation and Research StationUNSPECIFIED
Estonian Research CouncilPRG714
National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary)K116788
National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary)K132254
NASA Graduate FellowshipNNX16AP36H
European Research Council (ERC)654109
Issue or Number:6529
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210204-142442098
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Role of iodine oxoacids in atmospheric aerosol nucleation. Xu-Cheng He, et. al., Science 371 (6529), 589-595; DOI: 10.1126/science.abe0298
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107924
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Feb 2021 22:45
Last Modified:04 Feb 2021 22:45

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