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Swift Multiwavelength Follow-up of LVC S200224ca and the Implications for Binary Black Hole Mergers

Klingler, N. J. and Lien, A. and Oates, S. R. and Kennea, J. A. and Evans, P. A. and Tohuvavohu, A. and Zhang, B. and Page, K. L. and Cenko, S. B. and Barthelmy, S. D. and Beardmore, A. P. and Bernardini, M. G. and Breeveld, A. A. and Brown, P. J. and Burrows, D. N. and Campana, S. and Cusumano, G. and D’Aì, A. and D’Avanzo, P. and D’Elia, V. and de Pasquale, M. and Emery, S. W. K. and García, J. and Giommi, P. and Gronwall, C. and Hartmann, D. H. and Krimm, H. A. and Kuin, N. P. M. and Malesani, D. B. and Marshall, F. E. and Melandri, A. and Nousek, J. A. and O’Brien, P. T. and Osborne, J. P. and Palmer, D. M. and Page, M. J. and Perri, M. and Racusin, J. L. and Sakamoto, T. and Sbarufatti, B. and Schlieder, J. E. and Siegel, M. H. and Tagliaferri, G. and Troja, E. (2021) Swift Multiwavelength Follow-up of LVC S200224ca and the Implications for Binary Black Hole Mergers. Astrophysical Journal, 907 (2). Art. No. 97. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/abd2c3.

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On 2020 February 24, during their third observing run ("O3"), the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory and Virgo Collaboration detected S200224ca: a candidate gravitational wave (GW) event produced by a binary black hole (BBH) merger. This event was one of the best-localized compact binary coalescences detected in O3 (with 50%/90% error regions of 13/72 deg²), and so the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory performed rapid near-UV/X-ray follow-up observations. Swift-XRT and UVOT covered approximately 79.2% and 62.4% (respectively) of the GW error region, making S200224ca the BBH event most thoroughly followed-up in near-UV (u-band) and X-ray to date. No likely EM counterparts to the GW event were found by the Swift BAT, XRT, or UVOT, nor by other observatories. Here, we report on the results of our searches for an EM counterpart, both in the BAT data near the time of the merger, and in follow-up UVOT/XRT observations. We also discuss the upper limits we can place on EM radiation from S200224ca, as well as the implications these limits have on the physics of BBH mergers. Namely, we place a shallow upper limit on the dimensionless BH charge, q̂ < 1.4 × 10⁻⁴, and an upper limit on the isotropic-equivalent energy of a blast wave E < 4.1 × 10⁵¹ erg (assuming typical GRB parameters).

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Klingler, N. J.0000-0002-7465-0941
Lien, A.0000-0002-7851-9756
Oates, S. R.0000-0001-9309-7873
Kennea, J. A.0000-0002-6745-4790
Evans, P. A.0000-0002-8465-3353
Tohuvavohu, A.0000-0002-2810-8764
Zhang, B.0000-0002-9725-2524
Page, K. L.0000-0001-5624-2613
Cenko, S. B.0000-0003-1673-970X
Bernardini, M. G.0000-0001-6106-3046
Breeveld, A. A.0000-0002-0001-7270
Brown, P. J.0000-0001-6272-5507
Burrows, D. N.0000-0003-0729-1632
Campana, S.0000-0001-6278-1576
D’Aì, A.0000-0002-5042-1036
D’Elia, V.0000-0002-7320-5862
García, J.0000-0003-3828-2448
Giommi, P.0000-0002-2265-5003
Gronwall, C.0000-0001-6842-2371
Hartmann, D. H.0000-0002-8028-0991
Krimm, H. A.0000-0003-4348-6058
Kuin, N. P. M.0000-0003-4650-4186
Malesani, D. B.0000-0002-7517-326X
Marshall, F. E.0000-0002-3559-6305
Nousek, J. A.0000-0001-7084-4637
O’Brien, P. T.0000-0002-5128-1899
Osborne, J. P.0000-0002-1041-7542
Palmer, D. M.0000-0001-7128-0802
Page, M. J.0000-0002-6689-6271
Perri, M.0000-0003-3613-4409
Racusin, J. L.0000-0002-4744-9898
Sakamoto, T.0000-0001-6276-6616
Sbarufatti, B.0000-0001-6620-8347
Schlieder, J. E.0000-0001-5347-7062
Tagliaferri, G.0000-0003-0121-0723
Troja, E.0000-0002-1869-7817
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 November 12; revised 2020 December 7; accepted 2020 December 9; published 2021 February 3. This publication is an official product of the Swift GW follow-up team. The authors wish to thank the anonymous referee for helpful comments that enhanced the clarity of the paper. N. J. K. and J. A. K. would like to acknowledge support from NASA Grants 80NSSC19K0408 and 80NSSC20K1104. P. A. E., K. L. P., A. P. B., J. P. O., A. A. B., S. W. K. E., N. P. M. K., and M. J. P. acknowledge funding from the UK Space Agency. P. D. A. acknowledges support from PRIN-MIUR 2017 (grant 20179ZF5KS). M. G. B., G. C., S. C., A. D. A., P. D. A., A. M. and G. T. acknowledge funding from the Italian Space Agency, contract ASI/INAF n. I/004/11/4. The authors would like to acknowledge support from the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation grant MAE0065741. E. T. acknowledges support by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through grant NNX10AF62G issued through the Astrophysics Data Analysis Program. M. D. P. acknowledges support for this work by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK), grant No: MFAG-119F073. D. B. M. is supported by research grant 19054 from Villum Fonden. Facility: NASA Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory.
Group:Space Radiation Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)20179ZF5KS
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)I/004/11/4
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (MAECI)MAE0065741
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)MFAG-119F073
Subject Keywords:Gravitational waves ; High energy astrophysics ; Black holes ; X-ray astronomy ; Gamma-ray astronomy ; Gamma-ray bursts ; Near ultraviolet astronomy
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Gravitational waves (678); High energy astrophysics (739); Black holes (162); X-ray astronomy (1810); Gamma-ray astronomy (628); Gamma-ray bursts (629); Near ultraviolet astronomy (1094)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210205-145940595
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:N. J. Klingler et al 2021 ApJ 907 97
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107937
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Feb 2021 23:23
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 19:07

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