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Giant Outer Transiting Exoplanet Mass (GOT ‘EM) Survey. I. Confirmation of an Eccentric, Cool Jupiter with an Interior Earth-sized Planet Orbiting Kepler-1514

Dalba, Paul A. and Kane, Stephen R. and Isaacson, Howard and Giacalone, Steven and Howard, Andrew W. and Rodriguez, Joseph E. and Vanderburg, Andrew and Eastman, Jason D. and Kraus, Adam L. and Dupuy, Trent J. and Weiss, Lauren M. and Schwieterman, Edward W. (2021) Giant Outer Transiting Exoplanet Mass (GOT ‘EM) Survey. I. Confirmation of an Eccentric, Cool Jupiter with an Interior Earth-sized Planet Orbiting Kepler-1514. Astronomical Journal, 161 (3). Art. No. 103. ISSN 1538-3881. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210208-144011098

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Abstract

Despite the severe bias of the transit method of exoplanet discovery toward short orbital periods, a modest sample of transiting exoplanets with orbital periods greater than 100 days is known. Long-term radial velocity (RV) surveys are pivotal to confirming these signals and generating a set of planetary masses and densities for planets receiving moderate to low irradiation from their host stars. Here we conduct RV observations of Kepler-1514 from the Keck I telescope using the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer. From these data, we measure the mass of the statistically validated giant (1.108 ± 0.023 R_J) exoplanet Kepler-1514 b with a 218-day orbital period as 5.28 ± 0.22 M_ J. The bulk density of this cool (~390 K) giant planet is 4.82_(-0.25)^(+0.26) g cm⁻³, consistent with a core supported by electron degeneracy pressure. We also infer an orbital eccentricity of 0.401_(-0.014)^(+0.013) from the RV and transit observations, which is consistent with planet–planet scattering and disk cavity migration models. The Kepler-1514 system contains an Earth-size, Kepler Object of Interest on a 10.5-day orbit that we statistically validate against false-positive scenarios, including those involving a neighboring star. The combination of the brightness (V = 11.8) of the host star and the long period, low irradiation, and high density of Kepler-1514 b places this system among a rare group of known exoplanetary systems and as one that is amenable to continued study.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/abd408DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2012.04676arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Dalba, Paul A.0000-0002-4297-5506
Kane, Stephen R.0000-0002-7084-0529
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Giacalone, Steven0000-0002-8965-3969
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Rodriguez, Joseph E.0000-0001-8812-0565
Vanderburg, Andrew0000-0001-7246-5438
Eastman, Jason D.0000-0003-3773-5142
Kraus, Adam L.0000-0001-9811-568X
Dupuy, Trent J.0000-0001-9823-1445
Weiss, Lauren M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Schwieterman, Edward W.0000-0002-2949-2163
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 October 23; revised 2020 December 8; accepted 2020 December 14; published 2021 February 4. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors thank the anonymous referee for thoughtful comments that improved the quality and clarity of this work. The authors thank all of the observers in the California Planet Search team for their many hours of hard work. P.D. is supported by a National Science Foundation (NSF) Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1903811. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This research made use of exoplanet and its dependencies (Kipping 2013; Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018; Salvatier et al. 2016; Theano Development Team 2016; Luger et al. 2019; Agol et al. 2020). This paper includes data collected by the Kepler mission and obtained from the MAST data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). Funding for the Kepler mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5–26555. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Finally, the authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Facilities: Keck:I (HIRES) - , Keck:II (NIRC2) - , Kepler. - Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013, 2018), EXOFASTv2 (Eastman et al. 2013; Eastman 2017; Eastman et al. 2019), VESPA (Morton 2012, 2015), exoplanet (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2020), pymc3 (Salvatier et al. 2016), theano, (Theano Development Team 2016).
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1903811
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
NASANAS 5-26555
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Radial velocity ; Exoplanets ; Direct imaging ; Extrasolar gas giants ; Transit photometry
Issue or Number:3
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Radial velocity (1332); Exoplanets (498); Direct imaging (387); Transit photometry (1709); Extrasolar gaseous giant planets (509)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210208-144011098
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210208-144011098
Official Citation:Paul A. Dalba et al 2021 AJ 161 103
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:107962
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Feb 2021 23:29
Last Modified:08 Feb 2021 23:29

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