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Subtractive photonics

Fatemi, Reza and Ives, Craig and Khachaturian, Aroutin and Hajimiri, Ali (2021) Subtractive photonics. Optics Express, 29 (2). pp. 877-893. ISSN 1094-4087. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210211-102546915

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Abstract

Realization of a multilayer photonic process, as well as co-integration of a large number of photonic and electronic components on a single substrate, presents many advantages over conventional solutions and opens a pathway for various novel architectures and applications. Despite the many potential advantages, realization of a complex multilayer photonic process compatible with low-cost CMOS platforms remains challenging. In this paper, a photonic platform is investigated that uses subtractively manufactured structures to fabricate such systems. These structures are created solely using simple post-processing methods, with no modification to the foundry process. This method uses the well-controlled metal layers of advanced integrated electronics as sacrificial layers to define dielectric shapes as optical components. Metal patterns are removed using an etching process, leaving behind a complex multilayer photonic system, while keeping the electronics'metal wiring intact. This approach can be applied to any integrated chip with well-defined metallization, including those produced in pure electronics processes, pure photonics processes, heterogeneously integrated processes, monolithic electronic-photonic processes, etc. This paper provides a proof-of-concept example of monolithic electronic-photonic integration in a 65 nm bulk CMOS process and demonstrates proof-of-concept photonic structures. The fabrication results, characterization, and measurement data are presented.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.410139DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Fatemi, Reza0000-0001-9081-2608
Khachaturian, Aroutin0000-0001-8304-3302
Hajimiri, Ali0000-0001-6736-8019
Additional Information:© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement. Received 18 Sep 2020; revised 29 Nov 2020; accepted 16 Dec 2020; published 5 Jan 2021. The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210211-102546915
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210211-102546915
Official Citation:Reza Fatemi, Craig Ives, Aroutin Khachaturian, and Ali Hajimiri, "Subtractive photonics," Opt. Express 29, 877-893 (2021); DOI: 10.1364/oe.410139
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108003
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:11 Feb 2021 19:11
Last Modified:11 Feb 2021 19:11

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