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Small anomalies in dry-season greenness and chlorophyll fluorescence for Amazon moist tropical forests during El Niño and La Niña

Doughty, Russell and Xiao, Xiangming and Qin, Yuanwei and Wu, Xiaocui and Zhang, Yao and Moore, Berrien, III (2021) Small anomalies in dry-season greenness and chlorophyll fluorescence for Amazon moist tropical forests during El Niño and La Niña. Remote Sensing of Environment, 253 . Art. No. 112196. ISSN 0034-4257. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210211-132358196

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Abstract

The Amazon Basin, a major driver of atmospheric CO₂ fluxes, is composed of moist tropical forest (> 2000 mm mean annual precipitation), seasonally moist tropical forests (< 2000 mm mean annual precipitation), croplands, and pastures. It is debated whether there is a dry-season increase in photosynthesis for moist forest and a large reduction in photosynthesis of tropical South America was recently cited as a major driver of the historically high atmospheric CO₂ growth rate during the 2015/2016 El Niño. To address this debate and to gain insight into changes in dry-season greenness, SIF, and photosynthesis during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, here we investigate (1) dry-season changes in satellite-based greenness, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), and photosynthesis during 2007–2017 and (2) anomalies of satellite-based dry-season greenness, SIF, and photosynthesis for two El Niño events (2009/2010 and 2015/2016) and two La Niña events (2007/2008 and 2010/2011). We hypothesize that satellite-based greenness, SIF, and photosynthesis of moist tropical forests should increase during the dry season, and find this to be the case using two MODIS BRDF-adjusted vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI), GOME-2 SIF data, and the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM). We also hypothesize that dry-season greenness, SIF, and photosynthesis should be anomalously high during the El Niños, due to anomalously high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and a relatively normal preceding wet season, and anomalously low during the La Niñas because these dry seasons were preceded by anomalously low amounts of wet-season precipitation. For this hypothesis, we present results for moist tropical forest and at the basin scale to determine if and by how much their anomalies differ. We find dry-season greenness, SIF, and photosynthesis of moist tropical forest and at the basin scale were statistically significantly lower than normal during the La Niñas, significantly higher than normal during the 2009/2010 El Niño, and were mixed for the 2015/2016 El Niño. Although statistically significant, the magnitudes of the dry-season anomalies were not substantial. Our findings provide additional evidence that photosynthesis of moist tropical Amazon forest increases during the dry season and narrows the potential drivers of perturbations to the atmospheric CO₂ growth rate during the last four ENSO events, as anomalies in dry-season greenness, SIF, and photosynthesis during these ENSO events were minute.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.112196DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Doughty, Russell0000-0001-5191-2155
Xiao, Xiangming0000-0003-0956-7428
Qin, Yuanwei0000-0002-5181-9986
Zhang, Yao0000-0002-7468-2409
Additional Information:© 2020 Elsevier Inc. Received 31 March 2020, Revised 10 November 2020, Accepted 13 November 2020, Available online 21 November 2020. This study was supported by research grants through the Geostationary Carbon Cycle Observatory (GeoCarb) Mission from NASA (GeoCarb Contract #80LARC17C0001), the US National Science Foundation EPSCoR Program (IIA-1301789), and the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program (NNN12AA01C). Author statement: R. Doughty and X. Xiao conceived the original idea of this work. R. Doughty and X. Xiao wrote the paper. R. Doughty, Y. Qin, X. Wu, and Y. Zhang processed the data and contributed to data analysis. All authors contributed to the drafting and revision of the manuscript. The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA80LARC17C0001
NSFIIA-1301789
NASANNN12AA01C
Subject Keywords:Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence; Gross primary productivity; Drought; El Niño–southern oscillation; MODIS; GOME-2; OCO-2; MAIAC
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210211-132358196
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210211-132358196
Official Citation:Russell Doughty, Xiangming Xiao, Yuanwei Qin, Xiaocui Wu, Yao Zhang, Berrien Moore, Small anomalies in dry-season greenness and chlorophyll fluorescence for Amazon moist tropical forests during El Niño and La Niña, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 253, 2021, 112196, ISSN 0034-4257, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2020.112196.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108008
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:11 Feb 2021 21:35
Last Modified:11 Feb 2021 21:35

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