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The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: arcminute-resolution maps of 18 000 square degrees of the microwave sky from ACT 2008–2018 data combined with Planck

Naess, Sigurd and Aiola, Simone and Austermann, Jason E. and Battaglia, Nick and Beall, James A. and Becker, Daniel T. and Bond, Richard J. and Calabrese, Erminia and Choi, Steve K. and Cothard, Nicholas F. and Crowley, Kevin T. and Darwish, Omar and Datta, Rahul and Denison, Edward V. and Devlin, Mark and Duell, Cody J. and Duff, Shannon M. and Duivenvoorden, Adriaan J. and Dunkley, Jo and Dünner, Rolando and Fox, Anna E. and Gallardo, Patricio A. and Halpern, Mark and Han, Dongwon and Hasselfield, Matthew and Hill, J. Colin and Hilton, Gene C. and Hilton, Matt and Hincks, Adam D. and Hložek, Renée and Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty and Hubmayr, Johannes and Huffenberger, Kevin M. and Hughes, John P. and Kosowsky, Arthur B. and Louis, Thibaut and Madhavacheril, Mathew S. and McMahon, Jeff and Moodley, Kavilan and Nati, Federico and Nibarger, John P. and Niemack, Michael D. and Page, Lyman and Partridge, Bruce and Salatino, Maria and Schaan, Emmanuel and Schillaci, Alessandro and Schmitt, Benjamin and Sherwin, Blake D. and Sehgal, Neelima and Sifón, Cristóbal and Spergel, David and Staggs, Suzanne and Stevens, Jason and Storer, Emilie and Ullom, Joel N. and Vale, Leila R. and Van Engelen, Alexander and Van Lanen, Jeff and Vavagiakis, Eve M. and Wollack, Edward J. and Xu, Zhilei (2020) The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: arcminute-resolution maps of 18 000 square degrees of the microwave sky from ACT 2008–2018 data combined with Planck. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2020 (12). Art. No. 46. ISSN 1475-7516. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2020/12/046.

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This paper presents a maximum-likelihood algorithm for combining sky maps with disparate sky coverage, angular resolution and spatially varying anisotropic noise into a single map of the sky. We use this to merge hundreds of individual maps covering the 2008–2018 ACT observing seasons, resulting in by far the deepest ACT maps released so far. We also combine the maps with the full Planck maps, resulting in maps that have the best features of both Planck and ACT: Planck's nearly white noise on intermediate and large angular scales and ACT's high-resolution and sensitivity on small angular scales. The maps cover over 18 000 square degrees, nearly half the full sky, at 100, 150 and 220 GHz. They reveal 4 000 optically-confirmed clusters through the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect (SZ) and 18 500 point source candidates at > 5σ, the largest single collection of SZ clusters and millimeter wave sources to date. The multi-frequency maps provide millimeter images of nearby galaxies and individual Milky Way nebulae, and even clear detections of several nearby stars. Other anticipated uses of these maps include, for example, thermal SZ and kinematic SZ cluster stacking, CMB cluster lensing and galactic dust science. The method itself has negligible bias. However, due to the preliminary nature of some of the component data sets, we caution that these maps should not be used for precision cosmological analysis. The maps are part of ACT DR5, and will be made available on no later than three months after the journal publication of this article, along with an interactive sky atlas.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Naess, Sigurd0000-0002-4478-7111
Aiola, Simone0000-0002-1035-1854
Austermann, Jason E.0000-0002-6338-0069
Choi, Steve K.0000-0002-9113-7058
Darwish, Omar0000-0003-2946-1866
Devlin, Mark0000-0002-3169-9761
Duff, Shannon M.0000-0002-9693-4478
Gallardo, Patricio A.0000-0001-9731-3617
Halpern, Mark0000-0002-1760-0868
Hill, J. Colin0000-0002-9539-0835
Hilton, Gene C.0000-0003-4247-467X
Hilton, Matt0000-0002-8490-8117
Hubmayr, Johannes0000-0002-2781-9302
Huffenberger, Kevin M.0000-0001-7109-0099
Hughes, John P.0000-0002-8816-6800
Madhavacheril, Mathew S.0000-0001-6740-5350
Moodley, Kavilan0000-0001-6606-7142
Nati, Federico0000-0002-8307-5088
Niemack, Michael D.0000-0001-7125-3580
Page, Lyman0000-0002-9828-3525
Partridge, Bruce0000-0001-6541-9265
Salatino, Maria0000-0003-4006-1134
Schaan, Emmanuel0000-0002-4619-8927
Schillaci, Alessandro0000-0002-0512-1042
Sehgal, Neelima0000-0002-9674-4527
Sifón, Cristóbal0000-0002-8149-1352
Spergel, David0000-0002-5151-0006
Staggs, Suzanne0000-0002-7020-7301
Stevens, Jason0000-0002-7762-9662
Ullom, Joel N.0000-0003-2486-4025
Vale, Leila R.0000-0001-8561-2580
Vavagiakis, Eve M.0000-0002-2105-7589
Wollack, Edward J.0000-0002-7567-4451
Xu, Zhilei0000-0001-5112-2567
Alternate Title:The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: arcminute-resolution maps of 18,000 square degrees of the microwave sky from ACT 2008-2018 data combined with Planck
Additional Information:© 2020 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab. Received 16 July 2020. Accepted 28 October 2020. Published 30 December 2020. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through awards AST-0408698, AST-0965625, and AST-1440226 for the ACT project, as well as awards PHY-0355328, PHY-0855887 and PHY-1214379. Funding was also provided by Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and a Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) award to UBC. ACT operates in the Parque Astronómico Atacama in northern Chile under the auspices of the Comisión Nacional de Investigación (CONICYT). Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation. NS acknowledges support from NSF grant numbers AST-1513618 and AST-1907657. KM acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa. JPH acknowledges support from NSF grant number AST-1615657 R.D. thanks CONICYT for grant BASAL CATA AFB-170002. ZL, ES and JD are supported through NSF grant AST-1814971. RH is a CIFAR Azrieli Global Scholar, Gravity & the Extreme Universe Program, 2019, and a 2020 Alfred. P. Sloan Research Fellow. RH is supported by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. The Dunlap Institute is funded through an endowment established by the David Dunlap family and the University of Toronto. We made use of the healpix library as part of this analysis. Computations were performed on the Niagara supercomputer at the SciNet HPC Consortium. SciNet is funded by the CFI under the auspices of Compute Canada, the Government of Ontario, the Ontario Research Fund–Research Excellence, and the University of Toronto. Additional computations were performed on Tiger and Feunman at Princeton. The development of multichroic detectors and lenses was supported by NASA grants NNX13AE56G and NNX14AB58G. Detector research at NIST was supported by the NIST Innovations in Measurement Science program. The shops at Penn and Princeton have time and again built beautiful instrumentation on which ACT depends. LP gratefully acknowledges support from the Mishrahi and Wilkinson funds. We thank our many colleagues from ALMA, APEX, CLASS, and Polarbear/Simons Array who have helped us at critical junctures. Colleagues at AstroNorte and RadioSky provide logistical support and keep operations in Chile running smoothly.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
David Dunlap FamilyUNSPECIFIED
University of TorontoUNSPECIFIED
Ontario Research Fund-Research ExcellenceUNSPECIFIED
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210212-133816705
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Sigurd Naess et al JCAP12(2020)046
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108046
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:12 Feb 2021 22:55
Last Modified:12 Jul 2022 19:44

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