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Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Catalog of >4000 Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Galaxy Clusters

Hilton, M. and Sifón, C. and Naess, S. and Madhavacheril, M. and Oguri, M. and Rozo, E. and Rykoff, E. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Adhikari, S. and Aguena, M. and Aiola, S. and Allam, S. and Amodeo, S. and Amon, A. and Annis, J. and Ansarinejad, B. and Aros-Bunster, C. and Austermann, J. E. and Avila, S. and Bacon, D. and Battaglia, N. and Beall, J. A. and Becker, D. T. and Bernstein, G. M. and Bertin, E. and Bhandarkar, T. and Bhargava, S. and Bond, J. R. and Brooks, D. and Burke, D. L. and Calabrese, E. and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Choi, S. K. and Choi, A. and Conselice, C. and da Costa, L. N. and Costanzi, M. and Crichton, D. and Crowley, K. T. and Dünner, R. and Denison, E. V. and Devlin, M. J. and Dicker, S. R. and Diehl, H. T. and Dietrich, J. P. and Doel, P. and Duff, S. M. and Duivenvoorden, A. J. and Dunkley, J. and Everett, S. and Ferraro, S. and Ferrero, I. and Ferté, A. and Flaugher, B. and Frieman, J. and Gallardo, P. A. and García-Bellido, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Giles, P. and Golec, J. E. and Gralla, M. B. and Grandis, S. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Han, D. and Hartley, W. G. and Hasselfield, M. and Hill, J. C. and Hilton, G. C. and Hincks, A. D. and Hinton, S. R. and Ho, S-P. P. and Honscheid, K. and Hoyle, B. and Hubmayr, J. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hughes, J. P. and Jaelani, A. T. and Jain, B. and James, D. J. and Jeltema, T. and Kent, S. and Knowles, K. and Koopman, B. J. and Kuehn, K. and Lahav, O. and Lima, M. and Lin, Y-T. and Lokken, M. and Loubser, S. I. and MacCrann, N. and Maia, M. A. G. and Marriage, T. A. and Martin, J. and McMahon, J. and Melchior, P. and Menanteau, F. and Miquel, R. and Miyatake, H. and Moodley, K. and Morgan, R. and Mroczkowski, T. and Nati, F. and Newburgh, L. B. and Niemack, M. D. and Nishizawa, A. J. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Orlowski-Scherer, J. and Page, L. A. and Palmese, A. and Partridge, B. and Paz-Chinchón, F. and Phakathi, P. and Plazas, A. A. and Robertson, N. C. and Romer, A. K. and Carnero Rosell, A. and Salatino, M. and Sanchez, E. and Schaan, E. and Schillaci, A. and Sehgal, N. and Serrano, S. and Shin, T. and Simon, S. M. and Smith, M. and Soares-Santos, M. and Spergel, D. N. and Staggs, S. T. and Storer, E. R. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thomas, D. and To, C. and Trac, H. and Ullom, J. N. and Vale, L. R. and Van Lanen, J. and Vavagiakis, E. M. and De Vicente, J. and Wilkinson, R. D. and Wollack, E. J. and Xu, Z. and Zhang, Y. (2021) Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Catalog of >4000 Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Galaxy Clusters. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 253 (1). Art. No. 3. ISSN 0067-0049.

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We present a catalog of 4195 optically confirmed Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters detected with signal-to-noise ratio >4 in 13,211 deg² of sky surveyed by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). Cluster candidates were selected by applying a multifrequency matched filter to 98 and 150 GHz maps constructed from ACT observations obtained from 2008 to 2018 and confirmed using deep, wide-area optical surveys. The clusters span the redshift range 0.04 < z < 1.91 (median z = 0.52). The catalog contains 222 z > 1 clusters, and a total of 868 systems are new discoveries. Assuming an SZ signal versus mass-scaling relation calibrated from X-ray observations, the sample has a 90% completeness mass limit of M_(500c) > 3.8 × 10¹⁴ M⊙, evaluated at z = 0.5, for clusters detected at signal-to-noise ratio >5 in maps filtered at an angular scale of 2.’4. The survey has a large overlap with deep optical weak-lensing surveys that are being used to calibrate the SZ signal mass-scaling relation, such as the Dark Energy Survey (4566 deg²), the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (469 deg²), and the Kilo Degree Survey (825 deg²). We highlight some noteworthy objects in the sample, including potentially projected systems, clusters with strong lensing features, clusters with active central galaxies or star formation, and systems of multiple clusters that may be physically associated. The cluster catalog will be a useful resource for future cosmological analyses and studying the evolution of the intracluster medium and galaxies in massive clusters over the past 10 Gyr.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper Itemv1.0 Catalogs Itemv1.0 Catalogs
http://dm.lsst.orgRelated ItemRubin Observatory Project
Hilton, M.0000-0002-8490-8117
Sifón, C.0000-0002-8149-1352
Naess, S.0000-0002-4478-7111
Madhavacheril, M.0000-0001-6740-5350
Oguri, M.0000-0003-3484-399X
Rykoff, E.0000-0001-9376-3135
Annis, J.0000-0002-0609-3987
Aros-Bunster, C.0000-0002-9441-3193
Austermann, J. E.0000-0002-6338-0069
Avila, S.0000-0001-5043-3662
Bernstein, G. M.0000-0002-8613-8259
Bertin, E.0000-0002-3602-3664
Bond, J. R.0000-0003-2358-9949
Brooks, D.0000-0002-8458-5047
Carrasco Kind, M.0000-0002-4802-3194
Carretero, J.0000-0002-3130-0204
Conselice, C.0000-0003-1949-7638
Costanzi, M.0000-0001-8158-1449
Crichton, D.0000-0003-1204-3035
Dicker, S. R.0000-0002-1940-4289
Diehl, H. T.0000-0002-8357-7467
Dietrich, J. P.0000-0002-8134-9591
Ferraro, S.0000-0003-4992-7854
Ferté, A.0000-0001-8896-9219
Flaugher, B.0000-0002-2367-5049
Frieman, J.0000-0003-4079-3263
García-Bellido, J.0000-0002-9370-8360
Gaztanaga, E.0000-0001-9632-0815
Gerdes, D. W.0000-0001-6942-2736
Gruen, D.0000-0003-3270-7644
Gruendl, R. A.0000-0002-4588-6517
Gschwend, J.0000-0003-3023-8362
Gutierrez, G.0000-0003-0825-0517
Hilton, G. C.0000-0003-4247-467X
Hincks, A. D.0000-0003-1690-6678
Hinton, S. R.0000-0003-2071-9349
Honscheid, K.0000-0002-6550-2023
Hoyle, B.0000-0002-2571-1357
Hubmayr, J.0000-0002-2781-9302
Huffenberger, K. M.0000-0001-7109-0099
Hughes, J. P.0000-0002-8816-6800
James, D. J.0000-0001-5160-4486
Kuehn, K.0000-0003-0120-0808
Lahav, O.0000-0002-1134-9035
Maia, M. A. G.0000-0001-9856-9307
Melchior, P.0000-0002-8873-5065
Menanteau, F.0000-0002-1372-2534
Miquel, R.0000-0002-6610-4836
Moodley, K.0000-0001-6606-7142
Mroczkowski, T.0000-0003-3816-5372
Nishizawa, A. J.0000-0002-6109-2397
Ogando, R. L. C.0000-0003-2120-1154
Palmese, A.0000-0002-6011-0530
Paz-Chinchón, F.0000-0003-1339-2683
Plazas, A. A.0000-0002-2598-0514
Romer, A. K.0000-0002-9328-879X
Carnero Rosell, A.0000-0003-3044-5150
Sanchez, E.0000-0002-9646-8198
Schillaci, A.0000-0002-0512-1042
Sehgal, N.0000-0002-9674-4527
Soares-Santos, M.0000-0001-6082-8529
Spergel, D. N.0000-0002-5151-0006
Suchyta, E.0000-0002-7047-9358
Tarle, G.0000-0003-1704-0781
To, C.0000-0001-7836-2261
Trac, H.0000-0001-6778-3861
De Vicente, J.0000-0001-8318-6813
Wollack, E. J.0000-0002-7567-4451
Xu, Z.0000-0001-5112-2567
Additional Information:© 2021 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 September 23; revised 2020 December 1; accepted 2020 December 1; published 2021 February 16. ACT was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through awards AST-0408698, AST-0965625, and AST-1440226 for the ACT project, as well as awards PHY-0355328, PHY-0855887, and PHY-1214379. Funding was also provided by Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and a Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) award to UBC. ACT operates in the Parque Astronómico Atacama in northern Chile under the auspices of the Comisión Nacional de Investigación (CONICYT). The development of multichroic detectors and lenses was supported by NASA grants NNX13AE56G and NNX14AB58G. Detector research at NIST was supported by the NIST Innovations in Measurement Science program. C.S. acknowledges support from the Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo through FONDECYT Iniciación grant No. 11191125. S.K.C. acknowledges support from the Cornell Presidential Postdoctoral Fellowship. R.D. thanks CONICYT for grant BASAL CATA AFB-170002. Z.L., E.S., and J.D. are supported through NSF grant AST-1814971. K.M. and M.Hi. acknowledge support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa (grant No. 112132). M.D.N. acknowledges support from NSF award AST-1454881. D.H., A.M., and N.S. acknowledge support from NSF grant Nos. AST-1513618 and AST-1907657. E.C. acknowledges support from the STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowship ST/M004856/2 and STFC Consolidated Grant ST/S00033X/1, and from the Horizon 2020 ERC Starting Grant (grant agreement No. 849169). N.B. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1910021. M.L. was supported by a Dicke Fellowship. L.P. acknowledges support from the Mishrahi and Wilkinson funds. A.J. acknowledges support from JSPS KAKENHI grant No. JP17H02868. J.P.H. acknowledges funding for SZ cluster studies from NSF grant No. AST-1615657. R.D. thanks CONICYT for grant BASAL CATA AFB-170002. The Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation. Computations were performed on Hippo at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the DOE and NSF (USA), MEC/MICINN/MINECO (Spain), STFC (UK), HEFCE (UK), NCSA (UIUC), KICP (U. Chicago), CCAPP (Ohio State), MIFPA (Texas A&M), CNPQ, FAPERJ, FINEP (Brazil), DFG (Germany), and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne Lab, UC Santa Cruz, University of Cambridge, CIEMAT-Madrid, University of Chicago, University College London, DES-Brazil Consortium, University of Edinburgh, ETH Zürich, Fermilab, University of Illinois, ICE (IEEC-CSIC), IFAE Barcelona, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, LMU München and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, University of Michigan, NFS's NOIRLab, University of Nottingham, Ohio State University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Lab, Stanford University, University of Sussex, Texas A&M University, and the OzDES Membership Consortium. This work is based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory at NSF's NOIRLab (NOIRLab Prop. ID 2012B-0001; PI: J. Frieman), which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The DES Data Management System is supported by the NSF under Grant Nos. AST-1138766 and AST-1536171. The DES participants from Spanish institutions are partially supported by MICINN under grants ESP2017-89838, PGC2018-094773, PGC2018-102021, SEV-2016-0588, SEV-2016-0597, and MDM-2015-0509, some of which include ERDF funds from the European Union. IFAE is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) including ERC grant agreements 240672, 291329, and 306478. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) do e-Universo (CNPq grant 465376/2014-2). This manuscript has been authored by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. The Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) collaboration includes the astronomical communities of Japan and Taiwan and Princeton University. The HSC instrumentation and software were developed by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU), the University of Tokyo, the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), the Academia Sinica Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Taiwan (ASIAA), and Princeton University. Funding was contributed by the FIRST program from the Japanese Cabinet Office, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), the Toray Science Foundation, NAOJ, Kavli IPMU, KEK, ASIAA, and Princeton University. This paper makes use of software developed for the Rubin Observatory. We thank the Rubin Observatory Project for making their code available as free software at This paper is based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope and retrieved from the HSC data archive system, which is operated by Subaru Telescope and Astronomy Data Center (ADC) at NAOJ. Data analysis was in part carried out with the cooperation of the Center for Computational Astrophysics (CfCA), NAOJ. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. The Legacy Surveys consist of three individual and complementary projects: the Dark Energy Camera Legacy Survey (DECaLS; NOAO Proposal ID 2014B-0404; PIs: David Schlegel and Arjun Dey), the Beijing-Arizona Sky Survey (BASS; NOAO Proposal ID 2015A-0801; PIs: Zhou Xu and Xiaohui Fan), and the Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS; NOAO Proposal ID 2016A-0453; PI: Arjun Dey). DECaLS, BASS, and MzLS together include data obtained, respectively, at the Blanco telescope, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO); the Bok telescope, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; and the Mayall telescope, Kitt Peak National Observatory, NOAO. The Legacy Surveys project is honored to be permitted to conduct astronomical research on Iolkam Du'ag (Kitt Peak), a mountain with particular significance to the Tohono O'odham Nation. NOAO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The Legacy Survey team makes use of data products from the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE), which is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology. NEOWISE is funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Legacy Surveys imaging of the DESI footprint is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH1123; by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility under the same contract; and by the U.S. National Science Foundation, Division of Astronomical Sciences under Contract No. AST-0950945 to NOAO. Software: AstroPy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), Core Cosmology Library (Chisari et al. 2019), Pixell (
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)11191125
Cornell UniversityUNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation (South Africa)112132
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M004856/2
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00033X/1
European Research Council (ERC)849169
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP17H02868
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)UNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
University of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignUNSPECIFIED
University of ChicagoUNSPECIFIED
Ohio State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Texas A&M UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Argonne National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
University of California Santa CruzUNSPECIFIED
University of CambridgeUNSPECIFIED
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y TecnológicasUNSPECIFIED
University College LondonUNSPECIFIED
DES-Brazil ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
University of EdinburghUNSPECIFIED
Fermi National Accelerator LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Institut de Física d'Altes EnergiesUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Ludwig-Maximilians Universität MünchenUNSPECIFIED
Excellence Cluster UniverseUNSPECIFIED
University of MichiganUNSPECIFIED
University of NottinghamUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
University of PortsmouthUNSPECIFIED
Stanford Linear Accelerator CenterUNSPECIFIED
Stanford UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of SussexUNSPECIFIED
OzDES Membership ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)ESP2017-89838
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PGC2018-094773
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)PGC2018-102021
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0597
Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia María de MaeztuMDM-2015-0509
European Regional Development FundsUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)240672
European Research Council (ERC)291329
European Research Council (ERC)306478
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)465376/2014-2
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-07CH11359
Cabinet Office (Japan)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)UNSPECIFIED
Toray Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the UniverseUNSPECIFIED
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)UNSPECIFIED
Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA)UNSPECIFIED
University of MarylandUNSPECIFIED
Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE)UNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH1123
Subject Keywords:Galaxy clusters; Cosmology; Large-scale structure of the universe
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Galaxy clusters (584); Cosmology (343); Large-scale structure of the universe (902)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210223-132034526
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:M. Hilton et al 2021 ApJS 253 3
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108155
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Feb 2021 00:07
Last Modified:24 Feb 2021 00:07

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