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Gaia GraL: Gaia DR2 Gravitational Lens Systems. VI. Spectroscopic Confirmation and Modeling of Quadruply Imaged Lensed Quasars

Stern, D. and Djorgovski, S. G. and Krone-Martins, A. and Sluse, D. and Delchambre, L. and Ducourant, C. and Teixeira, R. and Surdej, J. and Boehm, C. and den Brok, J. and Dobie, D. and Drake, A. and Galluccio, L. and Graham, M. J. and Jalan, P. and Klüter, J. and LeCampion, J.-F. and Mahabal, A. and Mignard, F. and Murphy, T. and Nierenberg, A. and Scarano, S., Jr. and Simon, J. and Slezak, E. and Spindola-Duarte, C. and Wambsganss, J. (2021) Gaia GraL: Gaia DR2 Gravitational Lens Systems. VI. Spectroscopic Confirmation and Modeling of Quadruply Imaged Lensed Quasars. Astrophysical Journal, 921 (1). Art. No. 42. ISSN 0004-637X. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac0f04.

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Combining the exquisite angular resolution of Gaia with optical light curves and WISE photometry, the Gaia Gravitational Lenses group (GraL) uses machine-learning techniques to identify candidate strongly lensed quasars, and has confirmed over two dozen new strongly lensed quasars from the Gaia Data Release 2. This paper reports on the 12 quadruply imaged quasars identified by this effort to date, which is a ∼20% increase in the total number of confirmed quadruply imaged quasars. We discuss the candidate selection, spectroscopic follow-up, and lens modeling. We also report our spectroscopic failures as an aid for future investigations.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Stern, D.0000-0003-2686-9241
Djorgovski, S. G.0000-0002-0603-3087
Krone-Martins, A.0000-0002-2308-6623
Sluse, D.0000-0001-6116-2095
Delchambre, L.0000-0003-2559-408X
Ducourant, C.0000-0003-4843-8979
Teixeira, R.0000-0002-6806-6626
Surdej, J.0000-0002-7005-1976
den Brok, J.0000-0002-8760-6157
Dobie, D.0000-0003-0699-7019
Galluccio, L.0000-0002-8541-0476
Graham, M. J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Klüter, J.0000-0002-3469-5133
Mahabal, A.0000-0003-2242-0244
Murphy, T.0000-0002-2686-438X
Nierenberg, A.0000-0001-6809-2536
Simon, J.0000-0003-1407-6607
Spindola-Duarte, C.0000-0002-8052-7763
Wambsganss, J.0000-0002-8365-7619
Additional Information:© 2021. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2020 December 9; revised 2021 February 25; accepted 2021 March 3; published 2021 October 28. The majority of this manuscript preparation took place during the COVID-19 global pandemic. The authors would like to thank all of those who risked their lives as essential workers in order for us to safely continue our work from home. We also thank the staff at the various observatories who assisted in the acquisition of the data presented herein.We gratefully acknowledge Amy Reines, Lynne Hillenbrand, and Letizia Stanghellini for useful discussions about GraL J070006.6+121442, which was initially suggestive of an AGN in a low-z, low-Z galaxy, but subsequently identified as a Galactic planetary nebula. The work of D.S. was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. S.G.D., A.D., M.J.G., and A.M. are supported by the NSF grants AST-1518308 and AST-1815034, and the NASA grant 16-ADAP16-0232. A.K.M. acknowledges the support from the Portuguese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through the Portuguese Strategic Programme UID/FIS/00099/2019 for CENTRA and through grants SFRH/BPD/74697/2010 & PTDC/FIS-AST/31546/2017. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 787886). Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Based on observations obtained at the Hale Telescope, Palomar Observatory as part of a continuing collaboration between the California Institute of Technology, NASA/JPL, Yale University, and the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the international Gemini Observatory, a program of NSF's NOIRLab, which is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation, on behalf of the Gemini Observatory partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), National Research Council (Canada), Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (Argentina), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (Brazil), and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (Republic of Korea). This work has made use of data from the ESA mission Gaia, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). Funding for DPAC has been provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This research has made use of the Aladin Sky Atlas and the SIMBAD database, both developed and operated at Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) at Strasbourg Observatory, France. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Facility: CRTS, Gaia, Gemini (GMOS), Keck:I (LRIS), NTT (EFOSC2), Palomar (DBSP), WISE, ZTF.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UID/FIS/00099/2019
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)SFRH/BPD/74697/2010
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)PTDC/FIS-AST/31546/2017
European Research Council (ERC)787886
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Strong gravitational lensing; Quasars
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Strong gravitational lensing (1643); Quasars (1319)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210224-084056817
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:D. Stern et al 2021 ApJ 921 42
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108163
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Feb 2021 18:21
Last Modified:18 Nov 2021 17:45

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