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Constraining the Nature of the PDS 70 Protoplanets with VLTI/GRAVITY

Wang, J. J. and Vigan, A. and Lacour, S. and Nowak, M. and Stolker, T. and De Rosa, R. J. and Ginzburg, S. and Gao, P. and Abuter, R. and Amorim, A. and Asensio-Torres, R. and Bauböck, M. and Benisty, M. and Berger, J. P. and Beust, H. and Beuzit, J.-L. and Blunt, S. and Boccaletti, A. and Bohn, A. and Bonnefoy, M. and Bonnet, H. and Brandner, W. and Cantalloube, F. and Caselli, P. and Charnay, B. and Chauvin, G. and Choquet, E. and Christiaens, V. and Clénet, Y. and Coudé du Foresto, V. and Cridland, A. and de Zeeuw, P. T. and Dembet, R. and Dexter, J. and Drescher, A. and Duvert, G. and Eckart, A. and Eisenhauer, F. and Facchini, S. and Gao, F. and Garcia, P. and Garcia Lopez, R. and Gardner, T. and Gendron, E and Genzel, R. and Gillessen, S. and Girard, J. and Haubois, X. and Heißel, G. and Henning, T. and Hinkley, S. and Hippler, S. and Horrobin, M. and Houllé, M. and Hubert, Z. and Jiménez-Rosales, A. and Jocou, L. and Kammerer, J. and Keppler, M. and Kervella, P. and Meyer, M. and Kreidberg, L. and Lagrange, A.-M. and Lapeyrère, V. and Le Bouquin, J.-B. and Léna, P. and Lutz, D. and Maire, A.-L. and Ménard, F. and Mérand, A. and Mollière, P. and Monnier, J. D. and Mouillet, D and Müller, A. and Nasedkin, E. and Ott, T. and Otten, G. P. P. L. and Paladini, C. and Paumard, T. and Perraut, K. and Perrin, G. and Pfuhl, O. and Pueyo, L. and Rameau, J. and Rodet, L. and Rodríguez-Coira, G. and Rousset, G. and Scheithauer, S. and Shangguan, J. and Shimizu, T. and Stadler, J. and Straub, O. and Straubmeier, C. and Sturm, E. and Tacconi, L. J. and van Dishoeck, E. F. and Vincent, F. and von Fellenberg, S. D. and Ward-Duong, K. and Widmann, F. and Wieprecht, E. and Wiezorrek, E. and Woillez, J. (2021) Constraining the Nature of the PDS 70 Protoplanets with VLTI/GRAVITY. Astronomical Journal, 161 (3). Art. No. 148. ISSN 0004-6256.

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We present K-band interferometric observations of the PDS 70 protoplanets along with their host star using VLTI/GRAVITY. We obtained K-band spectra and 100 μas precision astrometry of both PDS 70 b and c in two epochs, as well as spatially resolving the hot inner disk around the star. Rejecting unstable orbits, we found a nonzero eccentricity for PDS 70 b of 0.17 ± 0.06, a near-circular orbit for PDS 70 c, and an orbital configuration that is consistent with the planets migrating into a 2:1 mean motion resonance. Enforcing dynamical stability, we obtained a 95% upper limit on the mass of PDS 70 b of 10 M_(Jup), while the mass of PDS 70 c was unconstrained. The GRAVITY K-band spectra rules out pure blackbody models for the photospheres of both planets. Instead, the models with the most support from the data are planetary atmospheres that are dusty, but the nature of the dust is unclear. Any circumplanetary dust around these planets is not well constrained by the planets' 1–5 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and requires longer wavelength data to probe with SED analysis. However with VLTI/GRAVITY, we made the first observations of a circumplanetary environment with sub-astronomical-unit spatial resolution, placing an upper limit of 0.3 au on the size of a bright disk around PDS 70 b.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Wang, J. J.0000-0003-0774-6502
Vigan, A.0000-0002-5902-7828
Lacour, S.0000-0002-6948-0263
Nowak, M.0000-0001-6923-1315
Stolker, T.0000-0002-5823-3072
De Rosa, R. J.0000-0002-4918-0247
Gao, P.0000-0002-8518-9601
Amorim, A.0000-0003-0638-2321
Asensio-Torres, R.0000-0003-2990-0726
Benisty, M.0000-0002-7695-7605
Berger, J. P.0000-0001-5025-0428
Beuzit, J.-L.0000-0002-7391-479X
Blunt, S.0000-0002-3199-2888
Boccaletti, A.0000-0001-9353-2724
Bohn, A.0000-0003-1401-9952
Bonnefoy, M.0000-0001-5579-5339
Brandner, W.0000-0003-1939-6351
Cantalloube, F.0000-0002-3968-3780
Caselli, P.0000-0003-1481-7911
Charnay, B.0000-0003-0977-6545
Choquet, E.0000-0002-9173-0740
Christiaens, V.0000-0002-0101-8814
Clénet, Y.0000-0002-8382-2020
de Zeeuw, P. T.0000-0003-4175-3474
Dexter, J.0000-0003-3903-0373
Duvert, G.0000-0001-8769-3660
Eckart, A.0000-0001-6049-3132
Facchini, S.0000-0003-4689-2684
Gao, F.0000-0002-2581-9114
Garcia, P.0000-0002-1678-3535
Garcia Lopez, R.0000-0002-2144-0991
Gardner, T.0000-0002-3003-3183
Gendron, E0000-0003-0021-6568
Genzel, R.0000-0002-2767-9653
Gillessen, S.0000-0002-5708-0481
Girard, J.0000-0001-8627-0404
Haubois, X.0000-0001-7878-7278
Henning, T.0000-0002-1493-300X
Hinkley, S.0000-0001-8074-2562
Hippler, S.0000-0002-3912-6108
Horrobin, M.0000-0001-5451-7847
Houllé, M.0000-0001-5633-2010
Jiménez-Rosales, A.0000-0002-2662-3754
Jocou, L.0000-0001-9376-1818
Kammerer, J.0000-0003-2769-0438
Keppler, M.0000-0001-7250-074X
Kervella, P.0000-0003-0626-1749
Meyer, M.0000-0003-1227-3084
Kreidberg, L.0000-0003-0514-1147
Lagrange, A.-M.0000-0002-2189-2365
Le Bouquin, J.-B.0000-0002-0493-4674
Léna, P.0000-0002-9091-3051
Lutz, D.0000-0003-0291-9582
Maire, A.-L.0000-0002-2591-4138
Ménard, F.0000-0002-1637-7393
Mérand, A.0000-0003-2125-0183
Mollière, P.0000-0003-4096-7067
Monnier, J. D.0000-0002-3380-3307
Nasedkin, E.0000-0002-9792-3121
Ott, T.0000-0003-1572-0396
Paladini, C.0000-0003-4974-7239
Paumard, T.0000-0003-0655-0452
Perraut, K.0000-0003-3099-757X
Perrin, G.0000-0003-0680-0167
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Rameau, J.0000-0003-0029-0258
Rodet, L.0000-0002-1259-3312
Rodríguez-Coira, G.0000-0002-4177-6433
Shangguan, J.0000-0002-4569-9009
Shimizu, T.0000-0002-2125-4670
Stadler, J.0000-0001-5888-023X
Straub, O.0000-0001-5755-0677
Straubmeier, C.0000-0002-0671-9302
Sturm, E.0000-0002-0018-3666
Tacconi, L. J.0000-0002-1485-9401
van Dishoeck, E. F.0000-0001-7591-1907
Vincent, F.0000-0002-3855-0708
von Fellenberg, S. D.0000-0002-9156-2249
Ward-Duong, K.0000-0002-4479-8291
Widmann, F.0000-0002-0327-6585
Woillez, J.0000-0002-2958-4738
Additional Information:© 2021 The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2020 October 19; revised 2021 January 8; accepted 2021 January 11; published 2021 February 25. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programmes 0101.C-0281(B), 1103.B-0626(A), 2103.C-5018(A), and 1104.C-0651(A). We thank Dino Mesa and Michael Liu for helpful discussions. This research has made use of the Jean-Marie Mariotti Center Aspro service. J.J.W., S.G., P.G., and S.B. acknowledge support from the Heising-Simons Foundation, including grant 2019-1698. A.V. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant agreement No. 757561). T.H, P.M., and R.A.-T. acknowledge support from the European Research Council under the Horizon 2020 Framework Program via the ERC Advanced Grant Origins 83 24 28. SPHERE is an instrument designed and built by a consortium consisting of IPAG (Grenoble, France), MPIA (Heidelberg, Germany), LAM (Marseille, France), LESIA (Paris, France), Laboratoire Lagrange (Nice, France), INAF—Osservatorio di Padova (Italy), Observatoire de Genève (Switzerland), ETH Zürich (Switzerland), NOVA (Netherlands), ONERA (France), and ASTRON (Netherlands) in collaboration with ESO. SPHERE was funded by ESO, with additional contributions from CNRS (France), MPIA (Germany), INAF (Italy), FINES (Switzerland), and NOVA (Netherlands). SPHERE also received funding from the European Commission Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes as part of the Optical Infrared Coordination Network for Astronomy (OPTICON) under grant number RII3-Ct-2004-001566 for FP6 (2004-2008), grant number 226604 for FP7 (2009-2012), and grant number 312430 for FP7 (2013-2016). R.G.L. has received funding from Science Foundation Ireland under grant No. 18/SIRG/5597. Facility: VLTI (GRAVITY). - Software: orbitize! (Blunt et al. 2020), pyKLIP (Wang et al. 2015), vlt-sphere (Vigan 2020), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013), ptemcee (Vousden et al. 2016), pymultinest (Buchner et al. 2014), REBOUND (Rein & Liu 2012; Rein & Spiegel 2015), astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Heising-Simons Foundation2019-1698
European Research Council (ERC)757561
European Research Council (ERC)832428
European Southern Observatory (ESO)UNSPECIFIED
European CommissionRII3-Ct-2004-001566
European Research Council (ERC)226604
European Research Council (ERC)312430
Science Foundation, Ireland18/SIRG/5597
Heising-Simons Foundation51 Pegasi b Fellowship
Subject Keywords:Exoplanet formation; Exoplanet atmospheres; Orbit determination; Long baseline interferometry
Issue or Number:3
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Exoplanet formation (492); Exoplanet atmospheres (487); Orbit determination (1175); Long baseline interferometry (932)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210301-082446966
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:J. J. Wang et al 2021 AJ 161 148
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108240
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:01 Mar 2021 18:40
Last Modified:01 Mar 2021 18:40

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