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Pre-Flight Calibration of the Mars 2020 Rover Mastcam Zoom (Mastcam-Z) Multispectral, Stereoscopic Imager

Hayes, Alexander G. and Corlies, P. and Tate, C. and Barrington, M. and Bell, J. F. and Maki, J. N. and Caplinger, M. and Ravine, M. and Kinch, K. M. and Herkenhoff, K. and Horgan, B. and Johnson, J. and Lemmon, M. and Paar, G. and Rice, M. S. and Jensen, E. and Kubacki, T. M. and Cloutis, E. and Deen, R. and Ehlmann, B. L. and Lakdawalla, E. and Sullivan, R. and Winhold, A. and Parkinson, A. and Bailey, Z. and Van Beek, J. and Caballo-Perucha, P. and Cisneros, E. and Dixon, D. and Donaldson, C. and Jensen, O. B. and Kuik, J. and Lapo, K. and Magee, A. and Merusi, M. and Mollerup, J. and Scudder, N. and Seeger, C. and Stanish, E. and Starr, M. and Thompson, M. and Turenne, N. and Winchell, K. (2021) Pre-Flight Calibration of the Mars 2020 Rover Mastcam Zoom (Mastcam-Z) Multispectral, Stereoscopic Imager. Space Science Reviews, 217 (2). Art. No. 29. ISSN 0038-6308. PMCID PMC7892537. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210316-081628849

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Abstract

The NASA Perseverance rover Mast Camera Zoom (Mastcam-Z) system is a pair of zoomable, focusable, multi-spectral, and color charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras mounted on top of a 1.7 m Remote Sensing Mast, along with associated electronics and two calibration targets. The cameras contain identical optical assemblies that can range in focal length from 26 mm (25.5∘×19.1∘ FOV) to 110 mm (6.2∘×4.2∘ FOV) and will acquire data at pixel scales of 148-540 μm at a range of 2 m and 7.4-27 cm at 1 km. The cameras are mounted on the rover’s mast with a stereo baseline of 24.3±0.1 cm and a toe-in angle of 1.17±0.03∘ (per camera). Each camera uses a Kodak KAI-2020 CCD with 1600×1200 active pixels and an 8 position filter wheel that contains an IR-cutoff filter for color imaging through the detectors’ Bayer-pattern filters, a neutral density (ND) solar filter for imaging the sun, and 6 narrow-band geology filters (16 total filters). An associated Digital Electronics Assembly provides command data interfaces to the rover, 11-to-8 bit companding, and JPEG compression capabilities. Herein, we describe pre-flight calibration of the Mastcam-Z instrument and characterize its radiometric and geometric behavior. Between April 26thth and May 9thth, 2019, ∼45,000 images were acquired during stand-alone calibration at Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) in San Diego, CA. Additional data were acquired during Assembly Test and Launch Operations (ATLO) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Kennedy Space Center. Results of the radiometric calibration validate a 5% absolute radiometric accuracy when using camera state parameters investigated during testing. When observing using camera state parameters not interrogated during calibration (e.g., non-canonical zoom positions), we conservatively estimate the absolute uncertainty to be <10%. Image quality, measured via the amplitude of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at Nyquist sampling (0.35 line pairs per pixel), shows MTF_(Nyquist) = 0.26−0.50 across all zoom, focus, and filter positions, exceeding the >0.2 design requirement. We discuss lessons learned from calibration and suggest tactical strategies that will optimize the quality of science data acquired during operation at Mars. While most results matched expectations, some surprises were discovered, such as a strong wavelength and temperature dependence on the radiometric coefficients and a scene-dependent dynamic component to the zero-exposure bias frames. Calibration results and derived accuracies were validated using a Geoboard target consisting of well-characterized geologic samples.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-021-00795-xDOIArticle
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892537PubMed CentralArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Hayes, Alexander G.0000-0001-6397-2630
Maki, J. N.0000-0002-7887-0343
Deen, R.0000-0002-5693-641X
Ehlmann, B. L.0000-0002-2745-3240
Van Beek, J.0000-0002-6772-4914
Additional Information:© The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. Received 22 May 2020; Accepted 12 January 2021; Published 18 February 2021. The authors would like to thank two anonymous reviewers for detailed and well-thought out comments that substantially improved this manuscript during revision. This work was supported by funding from: the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) at the California Institute of Technology, NASA’s Ames Research Center, the United States Geological Survey, the European Space Agency (ESA) PRODEX Programme, the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), the Canadian Space Agency, the United Kingdom Space Agency, the German Aerospace Center (DLR), the Free University of Berlin, the Danish Research Agency, the Carlsberg Foundation of Denmark, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Manitoba Research Innovation Fund (MRIF), and the University of Winnipeg. Danish participation in this work (Kinch and Jensen), and the broader Mars 2020 project, was supported by the Carlsberg Foundation grants CF16-0981, CF17-0979, and CF19-0023. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. The Mars 2020 Mission, Edited by Kenneth A. Farley, Kenneth H. Williford and Kathryn M. Stack.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
USGSUNSPECIFIED
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Österreichische Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft (FFG)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Space Agency (CSA)UNSPECIFIED
United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Free University of BerlinUNSPECIFIED
Danish Research AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI)UNSPECIFIED
Manitoba Research Innovation FundUNSPECIFIED
University of WinnipegUNSPECIFIED
Carlsberg FoundationCF16-0981
Carlsberg FoundationCF17-0979
Carlsberg FoundationCF19-0023
Subject Keywords:Calibration; Camera; Mars
Issue or Number:2
PubMed Central ID:PMC7892537
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210316-081628849
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210316-081628849
Official Citation:Hayes, A.G., Corlies, P., Tate, C. et al. Pre-Flight Calibration of the Mars 2020 Rover Mastcam Zoom (Mastcam-Z) Multispectral, Stereoscopic Imager. Space Sci Rev 217, 29 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-021-00795-x
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108447
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Mar 2021 00:37
Last Modified:19 Mar 2021 00:37

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