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Identifying type II strongly lensed gravitational-wave images in third-generation gravitational-wave detectors

Wang, Yijun and Lo, Rico K. L. and Li, Alvin K. Y. and Chen, Yanbei (2021) Identifying type II strongly lensed gravitational-wave images in third-generation gravitational-wave detectors. Physical Review D, 103 (10). Art. No. 104055. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.103.104055.

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Strong gravitational lensing is a gravitational wave (GW) propagation effect that influences the inferred GW source parameters and the cosmological environment. Identifying strongly lensed GW images is challenging as waveform amplitude magnification is degenerate with a shift in the source intrinsic mass and redshift. However, even in the geometric-optics limit, type II strongly lensed images cannot be fully matched by type I (or unlensed) waveform templates, especially with large binary mass ratios and orbital inclination angles. We propose to use this mismatch to distinguish individual type II images. Using planned noise spectra of Cosmic Explorer, Einstein Telescope and LIGO Voyager, we show that a significant fraction of type II images can be distinguished from unlensed sources, given sufficient SNR (∼30). Incorporating models on GW source population and lens population, we predict that the yearly detection rate of lensed GW sources with detectable type II images is 172.2, 118.2 and 27.4 for CE, ET and LIGO Voyager, respectively. Among these detectable events, 33.1%, 7.3% and 0.22% will be distinguishable via their type II images with a log Bayes factor larger than 10. We conclude that such distinguishable events are likely to appear in the third-generation detector catalog; our strategy will significantly supplement existing strong lensing search strategies.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Wang, Yijun0000-0002-5581-2001
Lo, Rico K. L.0000-0003-1561-6716
Chen, Yanbei0000-0002-9730-9463
Additional Information:© 2021 American Physical Society. Received 27 January 2021; accepted 16 April 2021; published 24 May 2021. We thank the anonymous referee for helpful suggestions that improve this manuscript. Y. W. would like to thank the David and Ellen Lee Distinguished Fellowship for support during this research. Research of Y. W. and Y. C. are supported by the Simons Foundation (Grant No. 568762), and the National Science Foundation, through Grants No. PHY-2011961, No. PHY-2011968, and No. PHY-1836809. R. K. L. L. would also like to thank the Croucher Foundation for support during this research. The computations presented here were conducted on the Caltech High Performance Cluster partially supported by a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. This paper carries LIGO Document No. LIGO-P2100002.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
David and Ellen Lee Postdoctoral ScholarshipUNSPECIFIED
Simons Foundation568762
Croucher FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP2100002
Issue or Number:10
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210316-114358954
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108451
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Mar 2021 00:43
Last Modified:26 May 2021 18:19

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