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Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Combined kinematic and thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich measurements from BOSS CMASS and LOWZ halos

Schaan, Emmanuel and Ferraro, Simone and Amodeo, Stefania and Battaglia, Nicholas and Aiola, Simone and Austermann, Jason E. and Beall, James A. and Bean, Rachel and Becker, Daniel T. and Bond, Richard J. and Calabrese, Erminia and Calafut, Victoria and Choi, Steve K. and Denison, Edward V. and Devlin, Mark J. and Duff, Shannon M. and Duivenvoorden, Adriaan J. and Dunkley, Jo and Dünner, Rolando and Gallardo, Patricio A. and Guan, Yilun and Han, Dongwon and Hill, J. Colin and Hilton, Gene C. and Hilton, Matt and Hložek, Renée and Hubmayr, Johannes and Huffenberger, Kevin M. and Hughes, John P. and Koopman, Brian J. and MacInnis, Amanda and McMahon, Jeff and Madhavacheril, Mathew S. and Moodley, Kavilan and Mroczkowski, Tony and Naess, Sigurd and Nati, Federico and Newburgh, Laura B. and Niemack, Michael D. and Page, Lyman A. and Partridge, Bruce and Salatino, Maria and Sehgal, Neelima and Schillaci, Alessandro and Sifón, Cristóbal and Smith, Kendrick M. and Spergel, David N. and Staggs, Suzanne and Storer, Emilie R. and Trac, Hy and Ullom, Joel N. and Van Lanen, Jeff and Vale, Leila R. and van Engelen, Alexander and Vargas Magaña, Mariana and Vavagiakis, Eve M. and Wollack, Edward J. and Xu, Zhilei (2021) Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Combined kinematic and thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich measurements from BOSS CMASS and LOWZ halos. Physical Review D, 103 (6). Art. No. 063513. ISSN 2470-0010. doi:10.1103/physrevd.103.063513.

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The scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons off the free-electron gas in galaxies and clusters leaves detectable imprints on high resolution CMB maps: the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ respectively). We use combined microwave maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope DR5 and Planck in combination with the CMASS (mean redshift ⟨z⟩ = 0.55 and host halo mass ⟨M_(vir)⟩ = 3×10¹³ M⊙) and LOWZ (⟨z⟩ = 0.31, ⟨M_(vir)⟩ = 5×10¹³  M⊙) galaxy catalogs from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS DR10 and DR12), to study the gas associated with these galaxy groups. Using individual reconstructed velocities, we perform a stacking analysis and reject the no-kSZ hypothesis at 6.5σ, the highest significance to date. This directly translates into a measurement of the electron number density profile, and thus of the gas density profile. Despite the limited signal to noise, the measurement shows at high significance that the gas density profile is more extended than the dark matter density profile, for any reasonable baryon abundance (formally >90σ for the cosmic baryon abundance). We simultaneously measure the tSZ signal, i.e., the electron thermal pressure profile of the same CMASS objects, and reject the no-tSZ hypothesis at 10σ. We combine tSZ and kSZ measurements to estimate the electron temperature to 20% precision in several aperture bins, and find it comparable to the virial temperature. In a companion paper, we analyze these measurements to constrain the gas thermodynamics and the properties of feedback inside galaxy groups. We present the corresponding LOWZ measurements in this paper, ruling out a null kSZ (tSZ) signal at 2.9 (13.9)σ, and leave their interpretation to future work. This paper and the companion paper demonstrate that current CMB experiments can detect and resolve gas profiles in low mass halos and at high redshifts, which are the most sensitive to feedback in galaxy formation and the most difficult to measure any other way. They will be a crucial input to cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, thus improving our understanding of galaxy formation. These precise gas profiles are already sufficient to reduce the main limiting theoretical systematic in galaxy-galaxy lensing: baryonic uncertainties. Future such measurements will thus unleash the statistical power of weak lensing from the Rubin, Euclid and Roman observatories. Our stacking software ThumbStackis publicly available and directly applicable to future Simons Observatory and CMB-S4 data.

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URLURL TypeDescription Paper Itemstacking software ThumbStack
Schaan, Emmanuel0000-0002-4619-8927
Schillaci, Alessandro0000-0002-0512-1042
Additional Information:© 2021 American Physical Society. Received 27 August 2020; accepted 5 February 2021; published 15 March 2021. We thank the anonymous referees for their insightful suggestions which improved this article. We thank Shirley Ho, Eliot Quataert, Chung-Pei Ma, Uroš Seljak and Martin White for their comments and suggestions on this work. E. S. is supported by the Chamberlain fellowship at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. S. F. is supported by the Physics Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. N. B. acknowledges support from NSF Grant No. AST-1910021. N. B. and J. C. H. acknowledge support from the Research and Technology Development fund at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the project entitled “Mapping the Baryonic Majority.” This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We used the software VisIt [92] to generate the 3D visualization of the galaxy catalog and reconstructed velocities. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through Grants No. AST-1440226, No. AST0965625 and No. AST-0408698 for the ACT project, as well as Grants No. PHY-1214379 and No. PHY-0855887. Funding was also provided by Princeton University, the University of Pennsylvania, and a Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI) award to UBC. ACT operates in the Parque Astronómico Atacama in northern Chile under the auspices of the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica de Chile (CONICYT). Computations were performed on the GPC and Niagara supercomputers at the SciNet HPC Consortium. SciNet is funded by the CFI under the auspices of Compute Canada, the Government of Ontario, the Ontario Research Fund—Research Excellence; and the University of Toronto. The development of multichroic detectors and lenses was supported by NASA Grants No. NNX13AE56G and No. NNX14AB58G. Colleagues at AstroNorte and RadioSky provide logistical support and keep operations in Chile running smoothly. We also thank the Mishrahi Fund and the Wilkinson Fund for their generous support of the project. Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III web site in (See Ref. [93]). SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, University of Tokyo, University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, University of Virginia, University of Washington, and Yale University. R. D. thanks CONICYT for Grant No. BASAL CATA AFB-170002. The Flatiron Institute is funded by the Simons Foundation. E. C. acknowledges support from the STFC Ernest Rutherford Fellowship ST/M004856/2 and STFC Consolidated Grant No. ST/S00033X/1, and from the Horizon 2020 ERC Starting Grant (Grant agreement No. 849169). J. D. is supported through NSF Grant No. AST-1814971. J. P. H. acknowledges funding for SZ cluster studies from NSF Grant No. AST-1615657. K. M. acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa. D. H., A. M., and N. S. acknowledge support from NSF Grants No. AST-1513618 and No. AST-1907657. M. Hi. acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation of South Africa.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
JPL Research and Technology Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Princeton UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)UNSPECIFIED
Government of OntarioUNSPECIFIED
Ontario Research Fund-Research ExcellenceUNSPECIFIED
University of TorontoUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M004856/2
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/S00033X/1
European Research Council (ERC)849169
National Research Foundation (South Africa)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210317-081138805
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108456
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Mar 2021 00:30
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 19:11

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