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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)

Klionsky, Daniel J. and Abdel-Aziz, Amal Kamal and Abdelfatah, Sara and Abdellatif, Mahmoud and Abdoli, Asghar and Abel, Steffen and Abeliovich, Hagai and Abildgaard, Marie H. and Abudu, Yakubu Princely and Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham and Adamopoulos, Iannis E. and Adeli, Khosrow and Adolph, Timon E. and Adornetto, Annagrazia and Aflaki, Elma and Agam, Galila and Agarwal, Anupam and Aggarwal, Bharat B. and Agnello, Maria and Agostinis, Patrizia and Agrewala, Javed N. and Agrotis, Alexander and Aguilar, Patricia V. and Ahmad, S. Tariq and Ahmed, Zubair M. and Ahumada-Castro, Ulises and Aits, Sonja and Aizawa, Shu and Akkoc, Yunus and Akoumianaki, Tonia and Akpinar, Hafize Aysin and Al-Abd, Ahmed M. and Al-Akra, Lina and Al-Gharaibeh, Abeer and Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A. and Alberti, Simon and Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet and Alessandri, Cristiano and Ali, Muhammad and Alim Al-Bari, M. Abdul and Aliwaini, Saeb and Alizadeh, Javad and Almacellas, Eugènia and Almasan, Alexandru and Alonso, Alicia and Alonso, Guillermo D. and Altan-Bonnet, Nihal and Altieri, Dario C. and Álvarez, Élida M. C. and Alves, Sara and Alves da Costa, Cristine and Alzaharna, Mazen M. and Amadio, Marialaura and Amantini, Consuelo and Amaral, Cristina and Ambrosio, Susanna and Amer, Amal O. and Ammanathan, Veena and An, Zhenyi and Andersen, Stig U. and Andrabi, Shaida A. and Andrade-Silva, Magaiver and Andres, Allen M. and Angelini, Sabrina and Ann, David and Anozie, Uche C. and Ansari, Mohammad Y. and Antas, Pedro and Antebi, Adam and Antón, Zuriñe and Anwar, Tahira and Apetoh, Lionel and Apostolova, Nadezda and Araki, Toshiyuki and Araki, Yasuhiro and Arasaki, Kohei and Araújo, Wagner L. and Araya, Jun and Arden, Catherine and Arévalo, Maria-Angeles and Arguelles, Sandro and Arias, Esperanza and Arikkath, Jyothi and Arimoto, Hirokazu and Ariosa, Aileen R. and Armstrong-James, Darius and Arnauné-Pelloquin, Laetitia and Aroca, Angeles and Arroyo, Daniela S. and Arsov, Ivica and Artero, Rubén and Asaro, Dalia Maria Lucia and Aschner, Michael and Ashrafizadeh, Milad and Ashur-Fabian, Osnat and Atanasov, Atanas G. and Au, Alicia K. and Auberger, Patrick and Auner, Holger W. and Aurelian, Laure and Autelli, Riccardo and Avagliano, Laura and Ávalos, Yenniffer and Aveic, Sanja and Aveleira, Célia Alexandra and Avin-Wittenberg, Tamar and Aydin, Yucel and Ayton, Scott and Ayyadevara, Srinivas and Azzopardi, Maria and Baba, Misuzu and Backer, Jonathan M. and Backues, Steven K. and Bae, Dong-Hun and Bae, Ok-Nam and Bae, Soo Han and Baehrecke, Eric H. and Baek, Ahruem and Baek, Seung-Hoon and Baek, Sung Hee and Bagetta, Giacinto and Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka and Bai, Hua and Bai, Jie and Bai, Xiyuan and Bai, Yidong and Bairagi, Nandadulal and Baksi, Shounak and Balbi, Teresa and Baldari, Cosima T. and Balduini, Walter and Ballabio, Andrea and Ballester, Maria and Balazadeh, Salma and Balzan, Rena and Bandopadhyay, Rina and Banerjee, Sreeparna and Banerjee, Sulagna and Bánréti, Ágnes and Bao, Yan and Baptista, Mauricio S. and Baracca, Alessandra and Barbati, Cristiana and Bargiela, Ariadna and Barilà, Daniela and Barlow, Peter G. and Barmada, Sami J. and Barreiro, Esther and Barreto, George E. and Bartek, Jiri and Bartel, Bonnie and Bartolome, Alberto and Barve, Gaurav R. and Basagoudanavar, Suresh H. and Bassham, Diane C. and Bast, Robert C. and Basu, Alakananda and Batoko, Henri and Batten, Isabella and Baulieu, Etienne E. and Baumgarner, Bradley L. and Bayry, Jagadeesh and Beale, Rupert and Beau, Isabelle and Beaumatin, Florian and Bechara, Luiz R.G. and Beck, George R. and Beers, Michael F. and Begun, Jakob and Behrends, Christian and Behrens, Georg M.N. and Bei, Roberto and Bejarano, Eloy and Bel, Shai and Behl, Christian and Belaid, Amine and Belgareh-Touzé, Naïma and Bellarosa, Cristina and Belleudi, Francesca and Belló Pérez, Melissa and Bello-Morales, Raquel and Beltran, Jackeline Soares de Oliveira and Beltran, Sebastián and Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina and Bendorius, Mykolas and Benitez, Bruno A. and Benito-Cuesta, Irene and Bensalem, Julien and Berchtold, Martin W. and Berezowska, Sabina and Bergamaschi, Daniele and Bergami, Matteo and Bergmann, Andreas and Berliocchi, Laura and Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse and Bernard, Amélie and Berthoux, Lionel and Besirli, Cagri G. and Besteiro, Sebastien and Betin, Virginie M. and Beyaert, Rudi and Bezbradica, Jelena S. and Bhaskar, Kiran and Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid and Bhattacharya, Resham and Bhattacharya, Sujoy and Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli and Bhuiyan, Md. Shenuarin and Bhutia, Sujit Kumar and Bi, Lanrong and Bi, Xiaolin and Biden, Trevor J. and Bijian, Krikor and Billes, Viktor A. and Binart, Nadine and Bincoletto, Claudia and Birgisdottir, Asa B. and Bjorkoy, Geir and Blanco, Gonzalo and Blas-Garcia, Ana and Blasiak, Janusz and Blomgran, Robert and Blomgren, Klas and Blum, Janice S. and Boada-Romero, Emilio and Boban, Mirta and Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen and Boeuf, Philippe and Boland, Barry and Bomont, Pascale and Bonaldo, Paolo and Bonam, Srinivasa Reddy and Bonfili, Laura and Bonifacino, Juan S. and Boone, Brian A. and Bootman, Martin D. and Bordi, Matteo and Borner, Christoph and Bornhauser, Beat C. and Borthakur, Gautam and Bosch, Jürgen and Bose, Santanu and Botana, Luis M. and Botas, Juan and Boulanger, Chantal M. and Boulton, Michael E. and Bourdenx, Mathieu and Bourgeois, Benjamin and Bourke, Nollaig M. and Bousquet, Guilhem and Boya, Patricia and Bozhkov, Peter V. and Bozi, Luiz H. M. and Bozkurt, Tolga O. and Brackney, Doug E. and Brandts, Christian H. and Braun, Ralf J. and Braus, Gerhard H. and Bravo-Sagua, Roberto and Bravo-San Pedro, José M. and Brest, Patrick and Bringer, Marie-Agnès and Briones-Herrera, Alfredo and Broaddus, V. Courtney and Brodersen, Peter and Brodsky, Jeffrey L. and Brody, Steven L. and Bronson, Paola G. and Bronstein, Jeff M. and Brown, Carolyn N. and Brown, Rhoderick E. and Brum, Patricia C. and Brumell, John H. and Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola and Bruno, Daniele and Bryson-Richardson, Robert J. and Bucci, Cecilia and Buchrieser, Carmen and Bueno, Marta and Buitrago-Molina, Laura Elisa and Buraschi, Simone and Buch, Shilpa and Buchan, J. Ross and Buckingham, Erin M. and Budak, Hikmet and Budini, Mauricio and Bultynck, Geert and Burada, Florin and Burgoyne, Joseph R. and Burón, M. Isabel and Bustos, Victor and Büttner, Sabrina and Butturini, Elena and Byrd, Aaron and Cabas, Isabel and Cabrera-Benitez, Sandra and Cadwell, Ken and Cai, Jingjing and Cai, Lu and Cai, Qian and Cairó, Montserrat and Calbet, Jose A. and Caldwell, Guy A. and Caldwell, Kim A. and Call, Jarrod A. and Calvani, Riccardo and Calvo, Ana C. and Calvo-Rubio Barrera, Miguel and Camara, Niels OS and Camonis, Jacques H. and Camougrand, Nadine and Campanella, Michelangelo and Campbell, Edward M. and Campbell-Valois, François-Xavier and Campello, Silvia and Campesi, Ilaria and Campos, Juliane C. and Camuzard, Olivier and Cancino, Jorge and Candido de Almeida, Danilo and Canesi, Laura and Caniggia, Isabella and Canonico, Barbara and Cantí, Carles and Cao, Bin and Caraglia, Michele and Caramés, Beatriz and Carchman, Evie H. and Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena and Cardenas, Cesar and Cardenas, Luis and Cardoso, Sandra M. and Carew, Jennifer S. and Carle, Georges F. and Carleton, Gillian and Carloni, Silvia and Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac and Carneiro, Leticia A. and Carnevali, Oliana and Carosi, Julian M. and Carra, Serena and Carrier, Alice and Carrier, Lucie and Carroll, Bernadette and Carter, A. Brent and Carvalho, Andreia Neves and Casanova, Magali and Casas, Caty and Casas, Josefina and Cassioli, Chiara and Castillo, Eliseo F. and Castillo, Karen and Castillo-Lluva, Sonia and Castoldi, Francesca and Castori, Marco and Castro, Ariel F. and Castro-Caldas, Margarida and Castro-Hernandez, Javier and Castro-Obregon, Susana and Catz, Sergio D. and Cavadas, Claudia and Cavaliere, Federica and Cavallini, Gabriella and Cavinato, Maria and Cayuela, Maria L. and Cebollada Rica, Paula and Cecarini, Valentina and Cecconi, Francesco and Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna and Cenci, Simone and Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Victòria and Cerqueira, João J. and Cerutti, Janete M. and Cervia, Davide and Cetintas, Vildan Bozok and Cetrullo, Silvia and Chae, Han-Jung and Chagin, Andrei S. and Chai, Chee-Yin and Chakrabarti, Gopal and Chakrabarti, Oishee and Chakraborty, Tapas and Chakraborty, Trinad and Chami, Mounia and Chamilos, Georgios and Chan, David W. and Chan, Edmond Y. W. and Chan, Edward D. and Chan, H.Y. Edwin and Chan, Helen H. and Chan, Hung and Chan, Matthew T.V. and Chan, Yau Sang and Chandra, Partha K. and Chang, Chih-Peng and Chang, Chunmei and Chang, Hao-Chun and Chang, Kai and Chao, Jie and Chapman, Tracey and Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas and Chatterjee, Samrat and Chaube, Shail K. and Chaudhary, Anu and Chauhan, Santosh and Chaum, Edward and Checler, Frédéric and Cheetham, Michael E. and Chen, Chang-Shi and Chen, Guang-Chao and Chen, Jian-Fu and Chen, Liam L. and Chen, Leilei and Chen, Lin and Chen, Mingliang and Chen, Mu-Kuan and Chen, Ning and Chen, Quan and Chen, Ruey-Hwa and Chen, Shi and Chen, Wei and Chen, Weiqiang and Chen, Xin-Ming and Chen, Xiong-Wen and Chen, Xu and Chen, Yan and Chen, Ye-Guang and Chen, Yingyu and Chen, Yongqiang and Chen, Yu-Jen and Chen, Yue-Qin and Chen, Zhefan Stephen and Chen, Zhi and Chen, Zhi-Hua and Chen, Zhijian J. and Chen, Zhixiang and Cheng, Hanhua and Cheng, Jun and Cheng, Shi-Yuan and Cheng, Wei and Cheng, Xiaodong and Cheng, Xiu-Tang and Cheng, Yiyun and Cheng, Zhiyong and Chen, Zhong and Cheong, Heesun and Cheong, Jit Kong and Chernyak, Boris V. and Cherry, Sara and Cheung, Chi Fai Randy and Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio and Cheung, King-Ho and Chevet, Eric and Chi, Richard J. and Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing and Chiaradonna, Ferdinando and Chiarelli, Roberto and Chiariello, Mario and Chica, Nathalia and Chiocca, Susanna and Chiong, Mario and Chiou, Shih-Hwa and Chiramel, Abhilash I. and Chiurchiù, Valerio and Cho, Dong-Hyung and Choe, Seong-Kyu and Choi, Augustine M.K. and Choi, Mary E. and Choudhury, Kamalika Roy and Chow, Norman S. and Chu, Charleen T. and Chua, Jason P. and Chua, John Jia En and Chung, Hyewon and Chung, Kin Pan and Chung, Seockhoon and Chung, So-Hyang and Chung, Yuen-Li and Cianfanelli, Valentina and Ciechomska, Iwona A. and Cifuentes, Mariana and Cinque, Laura and Cirak, Sebahattin and Cirone, Mara and Clague, Michael J. and Clarke, Robert and Clementi, Emilio and Coccia, Eliana M. and Codogno, Patrice and Cohen, Ehud and Cohen, Mickael M. and Colasanti, Tania and Colasuonno, Fiorella and Colbert, Robert A. and Colell, Anna and Čolić, Miodrag and Coll, Nuria S. and Collins, Mark O. and Colombo, María I. and Colón-Ramos, Daniel A. and Combaret, Lydie and Comincini, Sergio and Cominetti, Márcia R. and Consiglio, Antonella and Conte, Andrea and Conti, Fabrizio and Contu, Viorica Raluca and Cookson, Mark R. and Coombs, Kevin M. and Coppens, Isabelle and Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana and Corkery, Dale P. and Cordes, Nils and Cortese, Katia and Costa, Maria do Carmo and Costantino, Sarah and Costelli, Paola and Coto-Montes, Ana and Crack, Peter J. and Crespo, Jose L. and Criollo, Alfredo and Crippa, Valeria and Cristofani, Riccardo and Csizmadia, Tamas and Cuadrado, Antonio and Cui, Bing and Cui, Jun and Cui, Yixian and Cui, Yong and Culetto, Emmanuel and Cumino, Andrea C. and Cybulsky, Andrey V. and Czaja, Mark J. and Czuczwar, Stanislaw J. and D’Adamo, Stefania and D’Amelio, Marcello and D’Arcangelo, Daniela and D’Lugos, Andrew C. and D’Orazi, Gabriella and da Silva, James A. and Dafsari, Hormos Salimi and Dagda, Ruben K. and Dagdas, Yasin and Daglia, Maria and Dai, Xiaoxia and Dai, Yun and Dai, Yuyuan and Dal Col, Jessica and Dalhaimer, Paul and Dalla Valle, Luisa and Dallenga, Tobias and Dalmasso, Guillaume and Damme, Markus and Dando, Ilaria and Dantuma, Nico P. and Darling, April L. and Das, Hiranmoy and Dasarathy, Srinivasan and Dasari, Santosh K. and Dash, Srikanta and Daumke, Oliver and Dauphinee, Adrian N. and Davies, Jeffrey S. and Dávila, Valeria A. and Davis, Roger J. and Davis, Tanja and Dayalan Naidu, Sharadha and De Amicis, Francesca and De Bosscher, Karolien and De Felice, Francesca and De Franceschi, Lucia and De Leonibus, Chiara and de Mattos Barbosa, Mayara G. and De Meyer, Guido R.Y. and De Milito, Angelo and De Nunzio, Cosimo and De Palma, Clara and De Santi, Mauro and De Virgilio, Claudio and De Zio, Daniela and Debnath, Jayanta and DeBosch, Brian J. and Decuypere, Jean-Paul and Deehan, Mark A. and Deflorian, Gianluca and DeGregori, James and Dehay, Benjamin and Del Rio, Gabriel and Delaney, Joe R. and Delbridge, Lea M. D. and Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth and Delpino, M. Victoria and Demarchi, Francesca and Dembitz, Vilma and Demers, Nicholas D. and Deng, Hongbin and Deng, Zhiqiang and Dengjel, Joern and Dent, Paul and Denton, Donna and DePamphilis, Melvin L. and Der, Channing J. and Deretic, Vojo and Descoteaux, Albert and Devis, Laura and Devkota, Sushil and Devuyst, Olivier and Dewson, Grant and Dharmasivam, Mahendiran and Dhiman, Rohan and di Bernardo, Diego and Di Cristina, Manlio and Di Domenico, Fabio and Di Fazio, Pietro and Di Fonzo, Alessio and Di Guardo, Giovanni and Di Guglielmo, Gianni M. and Di Leo, Luca and Di Malta, Chiara and Di Nardo, Alessia and Di Rienzo, Martina and Di Sano, Federica and Diallinas, George and Diao, Jiajie and Diaz-Araya, Guillermo and Díaz-Laviada, Inés and Dickinson, Jared M. and Diederich, Marc and Dieudé, Mélanie and Dikic, Ivan and Ding, Shiping and Ding, Wen-Xing and Dini, Luciana and Dinić, Jelena and Dinic, Miroslav and Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T. and Dionne, Marc S. and Distler, Jörg H.W. and Diwan, Abhinav and Dixon, Ian M.C. and Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan and Dobrinski, Ina and Dobrovinskaya, Oxana and Dobrowolski, Radek and Dobson, Renwick C.J. and Đokić, Jelena and Dokmeci Emre, Serap and Donadelli, Massimo and Dong, Bo and Dong, Xiaonan and Dong, Zhiwu and Dorn II, Gerald W. and Dotsch, Volker and Dou, Huan and Dou, Juan and Dowaidar, Moataz and Dridi, Sami and Drucker, Liat and Du, Ailian and Du, Caigan and Du, Guangwei and Du, Hai-Ning and Du, Li-Lin and du Toit, André and Duan, Shao-Bin and Duan, Xiaoqiong and Duarte, Sónia P. and Dubrovska, Anna and Dunlop, Elaine A. and Dupont, Nicolas and Durán, Raúl V. and Dwarakanath, Bilikere S. and Dyshlovoy, Sergey A. and Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius and Eckhart, Leopold and Edelstein, Charles L. and Efferth, Thomas and Eftekharpour, Eftekhar and Eichinger, Ludwig and Eid, Nabil and Eisenberg, Tobias and Eissa, N. Tony and Eissa, Sanaa and Ejarque, Miriam and El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar and El-Hage, Nazira and El-Naggar, Shahenda and Eleuteri, Anna Maria and El-Shafey, Eman S. and Elgendy, Mohamed and Eliopoulos, Aristides G. and Elizalde, María M. and Elks, Philip M. and Elsasser, Hans-Peter and Elsherbiny, Eslam S. and Emerling, Brooke M. and Emre, N. C. Tolga and Eng, Christina H. and Engedal, Nikolai and Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart and Engelsen, Agnete S.T. and Enserink, Jorrit M. and Escalante, Ricardo and Esclatine, Audrey and Escobar-Henriques, Mafalda and Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa and Espert, Lucile and Eusebio, Makandjou-Ola and Fabrias, Gemma and Fabrizi, Cinzia and Facchiano, Antonio and Facchiano, Francesco and Fadeel, Bengt and Fader, Claudio and Faesen, Alex C. and Fairlie, W. Douglas and Falcó, Alberto and Falkenburger, Bjorn H. and Fan, Daping and Fan, Jie and Fan, Yanbo and Fang, Evandro F. and Fang, Yanshan and Fang, Yognqi and Fanto, Manolis and Farfel-Becker, Tamar and Faure, Mathias and Fazeli, Gholamreza and Fedele, Anthony O. and Feldman, Arthur M. and Feng, Du and Feng, Jiachun and Feng, Lifeng and Feng, Yibin and Feng, Yuchen and Feng, Wei and Fenz Araujo, Thais and Ferguson, Thomas A. and Fernández, Álvaro F. and Fernandez-Checa, Jose C. and Fernández-Veledo, Sonia and Fernie, Alisdair R. and Ferrante, Anthony W. and Ferraresi, Alessandra and Ferrari, Merari F. and Ferreira, Julio C.B. and Ferro-Novick, Susan and Figueras, Antonio and Filadi, Riccardo and Filigheddu, Nicoletta and Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo and Filomeni, Giuseppe and Fimia, Gian Maria and Fineschi, Vittorio and Finetti, Francesca and Finkbeiner, Steven and Fisher, Edward A. and Fisher, Paul B. and Flamigni, Flavio and Fliesler, Steven J. and Flo, Trude H. and Florance, Ida and Florey, Oliver and Florio, Tullio and Fodor, Erika and Follo, Carlo and Fon, Edward A. and Forlino, Antonella and Fornai, Francesco and Fortini, Paola and Fracassi, Anna and Fraldi, Alessandro and Franco, Brunella and Franco, Rodrigo and Franconi, Flavia and Frankel, Lisa B. and Friedman, Scott L. and Fröhlich, Leopold F. and Frühbeck, Gema and Fuentes, Jose M. and Fujiki, Yukio and Fujita, Naonobu and Fujiwara, Yuuki and Fukuda, Mitsunori and Fulda, Simone and Furic, Luc and Furuya, Norihiko and Fusco, Carmela and Gack, Michaela U. and Gaffke, Lidia and Galadari, Sehamuddin and Galasso, Alessia and Galindo, Maria F. and Gallolu Kankanamalage, Sachith and Galluzzi, Lorenzo and Galy, Vincent and Gammoh, Noor and Gan, Boyi and Ganley, Ian G. and Gao, Feng and Gao, Hui and Gao, Minghui and Gao, Ping and Gao, Shou-Jiang and Gao, Wentao and Gao, Xiaobo and Garcera, Ana and Garcia, Maria Noé and Garcia, Verónica E. and García-Del Portillo, Francisco and Garcia-Escudero, Vega and 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Hayrabedyan, Soren B. and Hays, Thomas S. and He, Congcong and He, Qin and He, Rong-Rong and He, You-Wen and He, Yu-Ying and Heakal, Yasser and Heberle, Alexander M. and Hejtmancik, J. Fielding and Helgason, Gudmundur Vignir  and Henkel, Vanessa and Herb, Marc and Hergovich, Alexander and Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna and Hernández, Agustín and Hernandez, Carlos and Hernandez-Diaz, Sergio and Hernandez-Gea, Virginia and Herpin, Amaury and Herreros, Judit and Hervás, Javier H. and Hesselson, Daniel and Hetz, Claudio and Heussler, Volker T. and Higuchi, Yujiro and Hilfiker, Sabine and Hill, Joseph A. and Hlavacek, William S. and Ho, Emmanuel A. and Ho, Idy H.T. and Ho, Philip Wing-Lok and Ho, Shu-Leong and Ho, Wan Yun and Hobbs, G. Aaron and Hochstrasser, Mark and Hoet, Peter H.M. and Hofius, Daniel and Hofman, Paul and Höhn, Annika and Holmberg, Carina I. and Hombrebueno, Jose R. and Yi-Ren Hong, Chang-Won Hong, and Hooper, Lora V. and Hoppe, Thorsten and Horos, Rastislav and Hoshida, Yujin and Hsin, I-Lun and Hsu, Hsin-Yun and Hu, Bing and Hu, Dong and Hu, Li-Fang and Hu, Ming Chang and Hu, Ronggui and Hu, Wei and Hu, Yu-Chen and Hu, Zhuo-Wei and Hua, Fang and Hua, Jinlian and Hua, Yingqi and Huan, Chongmin and Huang, Canhua and Huang, Chuanshu and Huang, Chuanxin and Huang, Chunling and Huang, Haishan and Huang, Kun and Huang, Michael L.H. and Huang, Rui and Huang, Shan and Huang, Tianzhi and Huang, Xing and Huang, Yuxiang Jack and Huber, Tobias B. and Hubert, Virginie and Hubner, Christian A. and Hughes, Stephanie M. and Hughes, William E. and Humbert, Magali and Hummer, Gerhard and Hurley, James H. and Hussain, Sabah and Hussain, Salik and Hussey, Patrick J. and Hutabarat, Martina and Hwang, Hui-Yun and Hwang, Seungmin and Ieni, Antonio and Ikeda, Fumiyo and Imagawa, Yusuke and Imai, Yuzuru and Imbriano, Carol and Imoto, Masaya and Inman, Denise M. and Inoki, Ken and Iovanna, Juan and Iozzo, Renato V. and Ippolito, Giuseppe and Irazoqui, Javier E. and Iribarren, Pablo and Ishaq, Mohd and Ishikawa, Makoto and Ishimwe, Nestor and Isidoro, Ciro and Ismail, Nahed and Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh and Itakura, Eisuke and Ito, Daisuke and Ivankovic, Davor and Ivanova, Saška and Iyer, Anand Krishnan V. and Izquierdo, José M. and Izumi, Masanori and Jäättelä, Marja and Jabir, Majid Sakhi and Jackson, William T. and Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia and Jacomin, Anne-Claire and Jacquin, Elise and Jadiya, Pooja and Jaeschke, Hartmut and Jagannath, Chinnaswamy and Jakobi, Arjen J. and Jakobsson, Johan and Janji, Bassam and Jansen-Dürr, Pidder and Jansson, Patric J. and Jantsch, Jonathan and Januszewski, Sławomir and Jassey, Alagie and Jean, Steve and Jeltsch-David, Hélène and Jendelova, Pavla and Jenny, Andreas and Jensen, Thomas E. and Jessen, Niels and Jewell, Jenna L. and Ji, Jing and Jia, Lijun and Jia, Rui and Jiang, Liwen and Jiang, Qing and Jiang, Richeng and Jiang, Teng and Jiang, Xuejun and Jiang, Yu and Jimenez-Sanchez, Maria and Jin, Eun-Jung and Jin, Fengyan and Jin, Hongchuan and Jin, Li and Jin, Luqi and Jin, Meiyan and Jin, Si and Jo, Eun-Kyeong and Joffre, Carine and Johansen, Terje and Johnson, Gail V.W. and Johnston, Simon A. and Jokitalo, Eija and Jolly, Mohit Kumar and Joosten, Leo A.B. and Jordan, Joaquin and Joseph, Bertrand and Ju, Dianwen and Ju, Jeong-Sun and Ju, Jingfang and Juárez, Esmeralda and Judith, Delphine and Juhász, Gábor and Jun, Youngsoo and Jung, Chang Hwa and Jung, Sung-Chul and Jung, Yong Keun and Jungbluth, Heinz and Jungverdorben, Johannes and Just, Steffen and Kaarniranta, Kai and Kaasik, Allen and Kabuta, Tomohiro and Kaganovich, Daniel and Kahana, Alon and Kain, Renate and Kajimura, Shinjo and Kalamvoki, Maria and Kalia, Manjula and Kalinowski, Danuta S. and Kaludercic, Nina and Kalvari, Ioanna and Kaminska, Joanna and Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O. and Kanamori, Hiromitsu and Kanasaki, Keizo and Kang, Chanhee and Kang, Rui and Kang, Sang Sun and Kaniyappan, Senthilvelrajan and Kanki, Tomotake and Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi and Kanthasamy, Anumantha G. and Kanthasamy, Arthi and Kantorow, Marc and Kapuy, Orsolya and Karamouzis, Michalis V. and Karim, Md. Razaul and Karmakar, Parimal and Katare, Rajesh G. and Kato, Masaru and Kaufmann, Stefan H.E. and Kauppinen, Anu and Kaushal, Gur P. and Kaushik, Susmita and Kawasaki, Kiyoshi and Kazan, Kemal and Ke, Po-Yuan and Keating, Damien J. and Keber, Ursula and Kehrl, John H. and Keller, Kate E. and Keller, Christian W. and Kemper, Jongsook Kim and Kenific, Candia M. and Kepp, Oliver and Kermorgant, Stephanie and Kern, Andreas and Ketteler, Robin and Keulers, Tom G. and Khalfin, Boris and Khalil, Hany and Khambu, Bilon and Khan, Shahid Y. and Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj and Khandia, Rekha and Kho, Widuri and Khobrekar, Noopur V. and Khuansuwan, Sataree and Khundadze, Mukhran and Killackey, Samuel A. and Kim, Dasol and Kim, Deok Ryong and Kim, Do-Hyung and Kim, Dong-Eun and Kim, Eun Young and Kim, Eun-Kyoung and Kim, Hak-Rim and Kim, Hee-Sik and Kim, Jeong Hun and Kim, Jin Kyung and Kim, Jin-Hoi and Kim, Joungmok and Kim, Ju Hwan and Kim, Keun Il and Kim, Peter K. and Kim, Seong-Jun and Kimball, Scot R. and Kimchi, Adi and Kimmelman, Alec C. and Kimura, Tomonori and King, Matthew A. and Kinghorn, Kerri J. and Kinsey, Conan G. and Kirkin, Vladimir and Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A. and Kiselev, Sergey L. and Kishi, Shuji and Kitamoto, Katsuhiko and Kitaoka, Yasushi and Kitazato, Kaio and Kitsis, Richard N. and Kittler, Josef T. and Kjaerulff, Ole and Klein, Peter S. and Klopstock, Thomas and Klucken, Jochen and Knævelsrud, Helene and Knorr, Roland L. and Ko, Ben C.B. and Ko, Fred and Ko, Jiunn-Liang and Kobayashi, Hotaka and Kobayashi, Satoru and Koch, Ina and Koch, Jan C. and Koenig, Ulrich and Kögel, Donat and Koh, Young Ho and Koike, Masato and Kohlwein, Sepp D. and Kocaturk, Nur M. and Komatsu, Masaaki and König, Jeannette and Kono, Toru and Kopp, Benjamin T. and Korcsmaros, Tamas and Korkmaz, Gözde and Korolchuk, Viktor I. and Korsnes, Mónica Suárez and Koskela, Ali and Kota, Janaiah and Kotake, Yaichiro and Kotler, Monica L. and Kou, Yanjun and Koukourakis, Michael I. and Koustas, Evangelos and Kovacs, Attila L. and Kovács, Tibor and Koya, Daisuke and Kozako, Tomohiro and Kraft, Claudine and Krainc, Dimitri and Krämer, Helmut and Krasnodembskaya, Anna D. and Kretz-Remy, Carole and Kroemer, Guido and Ktistakis, Nicholas T. and Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki and Kuenen, Sabine and Kuerschner, Lars and Kukar, Thomas and Kumar, Ajay and Kumar, Ashok and Kumar, Deepak and Kumar, Dhiraj and Kumar, Sharad and Kume, Shinji and Kumsta, Caroline and Kundu, Chanakya N. and Kundu, Mondira and Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B. and Kurgan, Lukasz and Kutateladze, Tatiana G. and Kutlu, Ozlem and Kwak, SeongAe and Kwon, Ho Jeong and Kwon, Taeg Kyu and Kwon, Yong Tae and Kyrmizi, Irene and La Spada, Albert and Labonté, Patrick and Ladoire, Sylvain and Laface, Ilaria and Lafont, Frank and Lagace, Diane C. and Lahiri, Vikramjit and Lai, Zhibing and Laird, Angela S. and Lakkaraju, Aparna and Lamark, Trond and Lan, Sheng-Hui and Landajuela, Ane and Lane, Darius J. R. and Lane, Jon D. and Lang, Charles H. and Lange, Carsten and Langel, Ülo and Langer, Rupert and Lapaquette, Pierre and Laporte, Jocelyn and LaRusso, Nicholas F. and Lastres-Becker, Isabel and Lau, Wilson Chun Yu and Laurie, Gordon W. and Lavandero, Sergio and Law, Betty Yuen Kwan and Law, Helen Ka-wai and Layfield, Rob and Le, Weidong and Le Stunff, Herve and Leary, Alexandre Y. and Lebrun, Jean-Jacques and Leck, Lionel Y.W. and Leduc-Gaudet, Jean-Philippe and Lee, Changwook and Lee, Chung-Pei and Lee, Da-Hye and Lee, Edward B. and Lee, Erinna F. and Lee, Gyun Min and Lee, He-Jin and Lee, Heung Kyu and Lee, Jae Man and Lee, Jason S. and Lee, Jin-A and Lee, Joo-Yong and Lee, Jun Hee and Lee, Michael and Lee, Min Goo and Lee, Min Jae and Lee, Myung-Shik and Lee, Sang Yoon and Lee, Seung-Jae and Lee, Stella Y. and Lee, Sung Bae and Lee, Won Hee and Lee, Ying-Ray and Lee, Yong-ho and Lee, Youngil and Lefebvre, Christophe and Legouis, Renaud and Lei, Yu L. and Lei, Yuchen and Leikin, Sergey and Leitinger, Gerd and Lemus, Leticia and Leng, Shuilong and Lenoir, Olivia and Lenz, Guido and Lenz, Heinz Josef and Lenzi, Paola and León, Yolanda and Leopoldino, Andréia M. and Leschczyk, Christoph and Leskelä, Stina and Letellier, Elisabeth and Leung, Chi-Ting and Leung, Po Sing and Leventhal, Jeremy S. and Levine, Beth and Lewis, Patrick A. and Ley, Klaus and Li, Bin and Li, Da-Qiang and Li, Jianming and Li, Jing and Li, Jiong and Li, Ke and Li, Liwu and Li, Mei and Li, Min and Li, Min and Li, Ming and Li, Mingchuan and Li, Pin-Lan and Li, Ming-Qing and Li, Qing and Li, Sheng and Li, Tiangang and Li, Wei and Li, Wenming and Li, Xue and Li, Yi-Ping and Li, Yuan and Li, Zhiqiang and Li, Zhiyong and Li, Zhiyuan and Lian, Jiqin and Liang, Chengyu and Liang, Qiangrong and Liang, Weicheng and Liang, Yongheng and Liang, YongTian and Liao, Guanghong and Liao, Lujian and Liao, Mingzhi and Liao, Yung-Feng and Librizzi, Mariangela and Lie, Pearl P. Y. and Lilly, Mary A. and Lim, Hyunjung J. and Lima, Thania R.R. and Limana, Federica and Lin, Chao and Lin, Chih-Wen and Lin, Dar-Shong and Lin, Fu-Cheng and Lin, Jiandie D. and Lin, Kurt M. and Lin, Kwang-Huei and Lin, Liang-Tzung and Lin, Pei-Hui and Lin, Qiong and Lin, Shaofeng and Lin, Su-Ju and Lin, Wenyu and Lin, Xueying and Lin, Yao-Xin and Lin, Yee-Shin and Linden, Rafael and Lindner, Paula and Ling, Shuo-Chien and Lingor, Paul and Linnemann, Amelia K. and Liou, Yih-Cherng and Lipinski, Marta M. and Lipovšek, Saška and Lira, Vitor A. and Lisiak, Natalia and Liton, Paloma B. and Liu, Chao and Liu, Ching-Hsuan and Liu, Chun-Feng and Liu, Cui Hua and Liu, Fang and Liu, Hao and Liu, Hsiao-Sheng and Liu, Hua-feng and Liu, Huifang and Liu, Jia and Liu, Jing and Liu, Julia and Liu, Leyuan and Liu, Longhua and Liu, Meilian and Liu, Qin and Liu, Wei and Liu, Wende and Liu, Xiao-Hong and Liu, Xiaodong and Liu, Xingguo and Liu, Xu and Liu, Xuedong and Liu, Yanfen and Liu, Yang and Liu, Yang and Liu, Yueyang and Liu, Yule and Livingston, J. Andrew and Lizard, Gerard and Lizcano, Jose M. and Ljubojevic-Holzer, Senka and LLeonart, Matilde E. and Llobet-Navàs, David and Llorente, Alicia and Lo, Chih Hung and Lobato-Márquez, Damián and Long, Qi and Long, Yun Chau and Loos, Ben and Loos, Julia A. and López, Manuela G. and López-Doménech, Guillermo and López-Guerrero, José Antonio and López-Jiménez, Ana T. and López-Pérez, Óscar and López-Valero, Israel and Lorenowicz, Magdalena J. and Lorente, Mar and Lorincz, Peter and Lossi, Laura and Lotersztajn, Sophie and Lovat, Penny E. and Lovell, Jonathan F. and Lovy, Alenka and Lőw, Péter and Lu, Guang and Lu, Haocheng and Lu, Jia-Hong and Lu, Jin-Jian and Lu, Mengji and Lu, Shuyan and Luciani, Alessandro and Lucocq, John M. and Ludovico, Paula and Luftig, Micah A. and Luhr, Morten and Luis-Ravelo, Diego and Lum, Julian J. and Luna-Dulcey, Liany and Lund, Anders H. and Lund, Viktor K. and Lünemann, Jan D. and Lüningschrör, Patrick and Luo, Honglin and Luo, Rongcan and Luo, Shouqing and Luo, Zhi and Luparello, Claudio and Lüscher, Bernhard and Luu, Luan and Lyakhovich, Alex and Lyamzaev, Konstantin G. and Lystad, Alf Håkon and Lytvynchuk, Lyubomyr and Ma, Alvin C. and Ma, Changle and Ma, Mengxiao and Ma, Ning-Fang and Ma, Quan-Hong and Ma, Xinliang and Ma, Yueyun and Ma, Zhenyi and MacDougald, Ormond A. and Macian, Fernando and MacIntosh, Gustavo C. and MacKeigan, Jeffrey P. and Macleod, Kay F. and Maday, Sandra and Madeo, Frank and Madesh, Muniswamy and Madl, Tobias and Madrigal-Matute, Julio and Maeda, Akiko and Maejima, Yasuhiro and Magarinos, Marta and Mahavadi, Poornima and Maiani, Emiliano and Maiese, Kenneth and Maiti, Panchanan and Maiuri, Maria Chiara and Majello, Barbara and Major, Michael B. and Makareeva, Elena and Malik, Fayaz and Mallilankaraman, Karthik and Malorni, Walter and Maloyan, Alina and Mammadova, Najiba and Man, Gene Chi Wai and Manai, Federico and Mancias, Joseph D. and Mandelkow, Eva-Maria and Mandell, Michael A. and Manfredi, Angelo A. and Manjili, Masoud H. and Manjithaya, Ravi and Manque, Patricio and Manshian, Bella B. and Manzano, Raquel and Manzoni, Claudia and Mao, Kai and Marchese, Cinzia and Marchetti, Sandrine and Marconi, Anna Maria and Marcucci, Fabrizio and Mardente, Stefania and Mareninova, Olga A. and Margeta, Marta and Mari, Muriel and Marinelli, Sara and Marinelli, Oliviero and Mariño, Guillermo and Mariotto, Sofia and Marshall, Richard S. and Marten, Mark R. and Martens, Sascha and Martin, Alexandre P.J. and Martin, Katie R. and Martin, Sara and Martin, Shaun and Martín-Segura, Adrián and Martín-Acebes, Miguel A. and Martin-Burriel, Inmaculada and Martin-Rincon, Marcos and Martin-Sanz, Paloma and Martina, José A. and Martinet, Wim and Martinez, Aitor and Martinez, Ana and Martinez, Jennifer and Martinez Velazquez, Moises and Martinez-Lopez, Nuria and Martinez-Vicente, Marta and Martins, Daniel O. and Martins, Joilson O. and Martins, Waleska K. and Martins-Marques, Tania and Marzetti, Emanuele and Masaldan, Shashank and Masclaux-Daubresse, Celine and Mashek, Douglas G. and Massa, Valentina and Massieu, Lourdes and Masson, Glenn R. and Masuelli, Laura and Masyuk, Anatoliy I. and Masyuk, Tetyana V. and Matarrese, Paola and Matheu, Ander and Matoba, Satoaki and Matsuzaki, Sachiko and Mattar, Pamela and Matte, Alessandro and Mattoscio, Domenico and Mauriz, José L. and Mauthe, Mario and Mauvezin, Caroline and Maverakis, Emanual and Maycotte, Paola and Mayer, Johanna and Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi and Mazzoni, Cristina and Mazzulli, Joseph R. and McCarty, Nami and McDonald, Christine and McGill, Mitchell R. and McKenna, Sharon L. and McLaughlin, BethAnn and McLoughlin, Fionn and McNiven, Mark A. and McWilliams, Thomas G. and Mechta-Grigoriou, Fatima and Medeiros, Tania Catarina and Medina, Diego L. and Megeney, Lynn A. and Megyeri, Klara and Mehrpour, Maryam and Mehta, Jawahar L. and Meijer, Alfred J. and Meijer, Annemarie H. and Mejlvang, Jakob and Meléndez, Alicia and Melk, Annette and Memisoglu, Gonen and Mendes, Alexandrina F. and Meng, Delong and Meng, Fei and Meng, Tian and Menna-Barreto, Rubem and Menon, Manoj B. and Mercer, Carol and Mercier, Anne E. and Mergny, Jean-Louis and Merighi, Adalberto and Merkley, Seth D. and Merla, Giuseppe and Meske, Volker and Mestre, Ana Cecilia and Metur, Shree Padma and Meyer, Christian and Meyer, Hemmo and Mi, Wenyi and Mialet-Perez, Jeanne and Miao, Junying and Micale, Lucia and Miki, Yasuo and Milan, Enrico and Milczarek, Małgorzata and Miller, Dana L. and Miller, Samuel I. and Miller, Silke and Millward, Steven W. and Milosevic, Ira and Minina, Elena A. and Mirzaei, Hamed and Mirzaei, Hamid Reza and Mirzaei, Mehdi and Mishra, Amit and Mishra, Nandita and Mishra, Paras Kumar and Misirkic Marjanovic, Maja and Misasi, Roberta and Misra, Amit and Misso, Gabriella and Mitchell, Claire and Mitou, Geraldine and Miura, Tetsuji and Miyamoto, Shigeki and Miyazaki, Makoto and Miyazaki, Mitsunori and Miyazaki, Taiga and Miyazawa, Keisuke and Mizushima, Noboru and Mogensen, Trine H. and Mograbi, Baharia and Mohammadinejad, Reza and Mohamud, Yasir and Mohanty, Abhishek and Mohapatra, Sipra and Möhlmann, Torsten and Mohmmed, Asif and Moles, Anna and Moley, Kelle H. and Molinari, Maurizio and Mollace, Vincenzo and Møller, Andreas Buch and Mollereau, Bertrand and Mollinedo, Faustino and Montagna, Costanza and Monteiro, Mervyn J. and Montella, Andrea and Montes, L. 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Patrick and Murthy, Aditya and Myöhänen, Timo T. and Mysorekar, Indira U. and Mytych, Jennifer and Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad and Nabissi, Massimo and Nagy, Péter and Nah, Jihoon and Nahimana, Aimable and Nakagawa, Ichiro and Nakamura, Ken and Nakatogawa, Hitoshi and Nandi, Shyam S. and Nanjundan, Meera and Nanni, Monica and Napolitano, Gennaro and Nardacci, Roberta and Narita, Masashi and Nassif, Melissa and Nathan, Ilana and Natsumeda, Manabu and Naude, Ryno J. and Naumann, Christin and Naveiras, Olaia and Navid, Fatemeh and Nawrocki, Steffan T. and Nazarko, Taras Y. and Nazio, Francesca and Negoita, Florentina and Neill, Thomas and Neisch, Amanda L. and Neri, Luca M. and Netea, Mihai G. and Neubert, Patrick and Neufeld, Thomas P. and Neumann, Dietbert and Neutzner, Albert and Newton, Phillip T. and Ney, Paul A. and Nezis, Ioannis P. and Ng, Charlene C.W. and Ng, Tzi Bun and Nguyen, Hang T. T. and Nguyen, Long T. and Ni, Hong-Min and Ní Cheallaigh, Clíona and Ni, Zhenhong and Nicolao, M. Celeste and Nicoli, Francesco and Nieto-Diaz, Manuel and Nilsson, Per and Ning, Shunbin and Niranjan, Rituraj and Nishimune, Hiroshi and Niso-Santano, Mireia and Nixon, Ralph A. and Nobili, Annalisa and Nobrega, Clevio and Noda, Takeshi and Nogueira-Recalde, Uxía and Nolan, Trevor M. and Nombela, Ivan and Novak, Ivana and Novoa, Beatriz and Nozawa, Takashi and Nukina, Nobuyuki and Nussbaum-Krammer, Carmen and Nylandsted, Jesper and O’Donovan, Tracey R. and O’Leary, Seónadh M. and O’Rourke, Eyleen J. and O’Sullivan, Mary P. and O’Sullivan, Timothy E. and Oddo, Salvatore and Oehme, Ina and Ogawa, Michinaga and Ogier-Denis, Eric and Ogmundsdottir, Margret H. and Ogretmen, Besim and Oh, Goo Taeg and Oh, Seon-Hee and Oh, Young J. and Ohama, Takashi and Ohashi, Yohei and Ohmuraya, Masaki and Oikonomou, Vasileios and Ojha, Rani and Okamoto, Koji and Okazawa, Hitoshi and Oku, Masahide and Oliván, Sara and Oliveira, Jorge M. A. and Ollmann, Michael and Olzmann, James A. and Omari, Shakib and Omary, M. 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Charlie and Kenchappa, Chandra Shekar and Li, Zuguo and Lin, Yong and Oshima, Shigeru and Rong, Yueguang and Sluimer, Judith C. and Stallings, Christina L. and Tong, Chun-Kit (2021) Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition). Autophagy, 17 (1). pp. 1-382. ISSN 1554-8627. doi:10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210325-104704700

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Abstract

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.


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https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOIArticle
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AuthorORCID
Hay, Bruce A.0000-0002-5486-0482
Additional Information:© 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Received 14 Jul 2020, Published online: 08 Feb 2021. Dedicated to the memory of our colleagues Caty Casas, Yukiko Kabeya and Beth Levine. In a rapidly expanding and highly dynamic field such as autophagy, it is possible that some authors who should have been included on this manuscript have been missed. D.J.K. extends his apologies to researchers in the field of autophagy who, due to oversight or any other reason, could not be included on this manuscript. Funding: This work was supported by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences [GM131919]. Due to space and other limitations, it is not possible to include all other sources of financial support. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the corresponding author.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHGM131919
Subject Keywords:Autophagosome; cancer; flux; LC3; lysosome; macroautophagy; neurodegeneration; phagophore; stress; vacuole
Issue or Number:1
DOI:10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210325-104704700
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210325-104704700
Official Citation:Daniel J. Klionsky, et. al., (2021) Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)1, Autophagy, 17:1, 1-382, DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108555
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 Mar 2021 23:30
Last Modified:30 Mar 2021 23:30

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