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High Gamma and Beta Temporal Interference Stimulation in the Human Motor Cortex Improves Motor Functions

Ma, Ru and Xia, Xinzhao and Zhang, Wei and Lu, Zhuo and Wu, Qianying and Cui, Jiangtian and Song, Hongwen and Fan, Chuan and Chen, Xueli and Zha, Rujing and Wei, Junjie and Ji, Gong-Jun and Wang, Xiaoxiao and Qiu, Bensheng and Zhang, Xiaochu (2022) High Gamma and Beta Temporal Interference Stimulation in the Human Motor Cortex Improves Motor Functions. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 15 . Art. No. 800436. ISSN 1662-4548. doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.800436. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210329-135647304

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Abstract

Background: Temporal interference (TI) stimulation is a new technique of non-invasive brain stimulation. Envelope-modulated waveforms with two high-frequency carriers can activate neurons in target brain regions without stimulating the overlying cortex, which has been validated in mouse brains. However, whether TI stimulation can work on the human brain has not been elucidated. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the envelope-modulated waveform of TI stimulation on the human primary motor cortex (M1). Methods: Participants attended three sessions of 30-min TI stimulation during a random reaction time task (RRTT) or a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Motor cortex excitability was measured before and after TI stimulation. Results: In the RRTT experiment, only 70 Hz TI stimulation had a promoting effect on the reaction time (RT) performance and excitability of the motor cortex compared to sham stimulation. Meanwhile, compared with the sham condition, only 20 Hz TI stimulation significantly facilitated motor learning in the SRTT experiment, which was significantly positively correlated with the increase in motor evoked potential. Conclusion: These results indicate that the envelope-modulated waveform of TI stimulation has a significant promoting effect on human motor functions, experimentally suggesting the effectiveness of TI stimulation in humans for the first time and paving the way for further explorations.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.800436DOIArticle
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc8761631/PubMed CentralArticle
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.26.437107DOIDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Wu, Qianying0000-0002-2665-2205
Additional Information:© 2022 Ma, Xia, Zhang, Lu, Wu, Cui, Song, Fan, Chen, Zha, Wei, Ji, Wang, Qiu and Zhang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Received: 23 October 2021; Accepted: 29 November 2021; Published: 03 January 2022. We would like to thank Bettina Pollok for her kindly help with programming of the experimental tasks. We would also like to thank Wei Lu for his help with circuit testing. This work was supported by grants from the National Key Basic Research Program (2018YFC0831101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (32171080, 31771221, 71942003, 61773360, 31800927, 31900766, and 71874170), Major Project of Philosophy and Social Science Research, Ministry of Education of China (19JZD010), CAS-VPST Silk Road Science Fund 2021 (GLHZ202128), and Collaborative Innovation Program of Hefei Science Center, CAS (2020HSC-CIP001). Author Contributions: RM: project administration, methodology, software, formal analysis, investigation, data curation, writing – original draft, and visualization. XX: methodology, hardware testing, formal analysis, investigation, data curation, writing – original draft, and visualization. WZ and HS: methodology, software, writing, review, and editing. ZL: methodology, hardware design and implementation, and hardware testing. QW: formal analysis, investigation, and data curation. JC: methodology, validation, and hardware testing. CF, XC, and RZ: writing, review, and editing. JW and G-JJ: methodology and techniques of TMS. XW and BQ: methodology, hardware, and supervision. XZ: conceptualization, funding acquisition, methodology, writing, review, editing, and supervision. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. Data Availability Statement: The datasets presented in this study can be found in online repositories. The names of the repository/repositories and accession number(s) can be found below: cnp.ustc.edu.cn. Ethics Statement: The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Science and Technology of China. The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Key Basic Research Program of China2018YFC0831101
National Natural Science Foundation of China32171080
National Natural Science Foundation of China31771221
National Natural Science Foundation of China71942003
National Natural Science Foundation of China61773360
National Natural Science Foundation of China31800927
National Natural Science Foundation of China31900766
National Natural Science Foundation of China71874170
Ministry of Education (Taipei)19JZD010
Chinese Academy of SciencesGLHZ202128
Chinese Academy of Sciences2020HSC-CIP001
Subject Keywords:temporal interference stimulation, non-invasive brain stimulation, brain oscillation, motor function, motor cortex excitability
DOI:10.3389/fnins.2021.800436
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20210329-135647304
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210329-135647304
Official Citation:Ma R, Xia X, Zhang W, Lu Z, Wu Q, Cui J, Song H, Fan C, Chen X, Zha R, Wei J, Ji G-J, Wang X, Qiu B and Zhang X (2022) High Gamma and Beta Temporal Interference Stimulation in the Human Motor Cortex Improves Motor Functions. Front. Neurosci. 15:800436. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2021.800436
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:108573
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 Mar 2021 18:29
Last Modified:01 Feb 2022 18:17

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